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Reproductive Health Law Essay Sample

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Reproductive Health Law Essay - 600 Words

Reproductive Health Law

* Executive or Board of Directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a company or organization. Other names include board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, and board of visitors. It is often simply referred to as "the board". * International Directors Programme is a unique educational experience that aims to develop more effective directors. Set within an international context, the programme is aimed at current directors who bring specific competences and credibility to the boards on which they serve and at senior executives and professionals preparing themselves for a board mandate and whose contributions will enhance the programme’s learning environment. * The FSC (FOREST STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL) International Network Director is responsible for the overall coordination of the FSC international network which is made up of the FSC Regional and National offices and FSC Contact Persons. S/he will be part of the senior management of the FSC Group and will coordinate the work of its different organisations with the FSC international network. *

* A Chief Operating Officer (or Chief Operations Officer; COO) or Director of Operations (or Operations Director) can be one of the highest-ranking executives in an organization and comprises part of the "C-Suite". The COO is responsible for the daily operation of the company,[1] and routinely reports to the highest ranking executive, usually the Chief Executive Officer (CEO).[2] The COO may also carry the title of President which makes him or her the clear number-two in command at the firm, especially if the highest ranking executive is the Chairman and CEO. * A deputy project manager is usually second in charge of a project under the project manager. The deputy's job will vary depending on the size of the business or corporation and the scope of the project, but generally speaking, the deputy is required.

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unborn Joe Mhel D. Hecto My dearest friends let us hear the cries of the unborn. Couple of years passed since Albay 1st district Representative Edcel Lagman and Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago introduced two senate bills, respectively House Bill No. 4244 or an Act providing for a Comprehensive Policy on ReproductiveHealth . and Population and Development, and for Other Purposes, and Senate Bill No. 2378 or An Act Providing For a National Policy on ReproductiveHealth and Population and Development. Also, couple of years passed since divisive arguments started mocking our ears. The pros and cons continually play tug of war in debate of whether passing the bill or not. The Reproduction Health bills, or RH bills, as they are commonly called, aim to guarantee universal access to methods and information on birth control and maternal care. In a medical sense, life begins when fertilization takes place. One of its prime components is the use of artificial methods in order to prevent fertilization to occur. In a biblical sense, we know it is a mortal sin to end one’s life. Ladies and gentlemen, I believe that sex is sacred, even to the natural laws itself and is bestowed only to two persons who share mutual values as well as commitment to God and themselves. With the use of artificial contraceptives, spouses do not put their total trust and gift of personal.

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Education Department TRACE COLLEGE ReproductiveHealth Bill in the Philippines Mary Ann A. Maranon Submitted in partial fulfilment of English 9 Submitted to Mr. Oscar Laborem A. Garcia ABSTRACT The study is about the ReproductiveHealth Bill or the RH Bill that was passed thru the 15th Congress by the Lower House Minority Leader and Albay Representative, Congressman Edcel Lagman. Though majority of the Senators from the Upper House supports the legislation, some are still opposing it. This bill aims to let the common Filipinos prevent cases of abortion and unwanted pregnancy. The importance of this topic is integrating awareness of the current social, political, and legal issues affecting reproductive and sexual health care into clinical practice. I. Introduction The ReproductiveHealth bill (HB 5043) or more commonly known as the RH bill was authored by House Minority Leader and Albay Representative Edcel Lagman during the 15th Congress. Senators Miriam Defensor Santiago & Pia Cayetano co-sponsored the senate’s counterpart version of the ReproductiveHealth bill, which will be the part of the country’s commitment to international covenants. The House of Representatives Committee on Population and Family Relations consolidated all the House versions of the bill.

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Reflection Paper # 2 The ReproductiveHealthLaw has a lot of provisions on ReproductiveHealth Care. As defined by the full text of the “Responsible Parenthood, ReproductiveHealth and Population and Development Act of 2011” [1], ReproductiveHealth Care encompasses different issues from family planning to maternal health and adolescent and youth care. Among these issues is my focus for this reflection paper, which is sex education. Also counted in reproductivehealth care is education and counseling on sexuality and reproductivehealth . and reproductivehealth education for adolescents. Firstly, the RH Law is a law passed to address the “universal basic human right to reproductivehealth by all persons, particularly parents, couples, and women.” It proposes a universal access to “medically-safe, legal, affordable, effective and quality reproductivehealth care services, methods, devices, supplies, relevant information and education. Among the guiding principles it has, based on the text, there are programs that would help couples and women in terms of family planning/ the number and spacing of children regarding their health and resources available.

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the actual total fertility rate is 3.5 or a difference of one child because of the lack of information and absence of access to family planning. The current unmet need for contraceptives for example is 23.15% for poor women and 13.6% for women who are not poor (2003 National Demographic and Health Survey) b. 61% of currently married women do not want additional children (2003 National Demographic and Health Survey) c. 50.6% of the youth want to have only two children (2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey) d. 97% of all Filipinos believe it is important to have the ability to control one’s fertility or to plan one’s family. It is significant to note that 87% of the total respondents are Roman Catholic (February 2004 Pulse Asia Survey) e. Nearly nine in ten Filipinos or 86% say that candidates for elective positions who advocate a program for women’s health should be supported while only 2% say they should be rejected and 12% are undecided on the matter; f. 82% say that candidates in favor of couples’ free choice of family planning methods should be supported while only 3% think otherwise and 15% are undecided; g. 82% of Filipinos consider candidates supporting a law or measure on population issues worthy of their voltes while only 3% say such candidates should not be backed at the polls and 15% are undecided; h. 83% of Filipinos say they are in favor of candidates who support the.

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We may hear or read news about the ReproductiveHealth Bill now known as the ReproductiveHealthLaw on newspapers, televisions, radios and even on the internet, right? Though, it is now a law - underwent three readings and also signed by the President of the Philippines, His Excellency Benigno Simeon Aquino III, many are still arguing about it. There are people who say that this newly signed law will not be good and will not help the Philippines. There are also people who are in favor and support the law . People are murmuring this and that, these and those. But the question is “DO we really know the provisions under the said RH Law ?” or should I say, “DO we raelly understand the law ?” That’s the weakness of us, Filipinos, we don’t understan the law fully yet we keep on murumuring. I don’t say that I am pro-RH but we should first atleast understand before we give our opinios in order not to be misunderstood or misinterpreted. So, as to fully understand the law . I will discuss in the proceeding paragraph the provisions under this very controversial and most debated RH Law . The Responsibile Parenthood and Reproductive Act of 2012 otr the Republic Act No. 10354, informalyy known as the ReproductiveHealthLaw . is a law here in.

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Assisted Reproduction – Essay Sample

Assisted Reproduction – Essay Sample

This paper covers the highly controversial topic of assisted reproduction. A few decades ago, the thought of assisted reproduction was only seen in science fiction movies. However, today this has become a reality and is now a choice for couples who seek to have a child yet cannot naturally conceive one. Yet, this comes with ethical issues such as exploitation and playing God. Many people criticize assisted reproduction as morally unacceptable, and conception should be left to nature. Issues including abortion and the care of preterm infants do not stray far from assisted reproduction. This topic springs a number of ethical questions, all which once was considered just a plot for a science fiction film and this paper discusses some of the issues assisted reproduction faces.

Assisted reproduction is something made possible through today’s advancements in technology. It is the process where a woman bears a child for someone else (Bavister, 2002). This was also seen in the past – where a woman could not bear a child for her husband – the couple would find a woman which the husband would impregnate and bear child. However, today modern technology enables a couple to have a child through another woman without going through this unusual process. This can be done through vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF is a scientific procedure which enables couples who are unable to have a child the baby which they desire without having to adopt. Even though this process is quite common nowadays, it still goes through very common complaints in regards to its ethics.

IVF is where a surrogate mother is provided a fertilized egg – the sperm and the egg can be either donated by a third party or provided by the couple – and the surrogate mother is to bear the child in her womb (Bavister, 2002). Simply put, surrogacy is the arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another person and/or couple. Genetically, the woman can be the child’s mother, or she may be carrying the embryo transferred to her uterus from another woman. Surrogacy involves a lot of people. This includes the parents, or the couple desiring the child, the surrogate mother, and sometimes even fertility specialists, lawyers and surrogacy agencies.

There have been issues in the past which have created this surrogacy to be a highly controversial issue. Like the famous issue of Baby M (Bavister, 2002). With the baby M case, the biological mother of the baby, Mary Beth Whitehead, whom provided both the egg and the womb for a couple desiring a child, at the end of the pregnancy decided to keep the child. This devastated the couple awaiting the child and left court decisions in a tangled mess. Due to the legal and ethical complications of this rare situation, surrogacy cases now require a contract for the woman bearing the child and/or donating the egg.

Along with complications such as this, it is not surprising that surrogacy has many moral concerns as well. The first example of surrogacy can be traced back to the time of Abraham as recorded in the Bible. This is where Sarah, Abraham’s wife decided that Abraham should impregnate their servant, Hagar so that Sarah may have a child. This sort of surrogacy can be seen and criticized as adultery. However, because of the advancements of technology, this type of surrogacy is no more needed, and babies can be created in test tubes and Petri dishes. Now, the thought of this scientific procedure in creating life may conjure up ideas of science-fiction or even horror movies to mind. Also bringing up the fear that the woman you entrust to bear your child is a complete stranger whom you really know nothing of. The thought of surrogacy has many ethical issues coming from left and right.

It is true that scientists now have the technology to create life, many people see this as unethical because it is “playing God”. However, there are many deserving couples out there who would like to be parents, yet do not have the reproductive capabilities to do so. Yes, they could consider adopting, however most – if not all – couples would like a child who they can say has their eyes, smile, etc. Sharing the same genetic make-up with their child tightens their bond. Some scientists refer to surrogacy similar to organ donation, though it is more of organ borrowing; where one woman assists another woman through scientific and medical means. It can be seen as simple as that, yet morals, beliefs and religion make the matter a bit more complicated.

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Knowledge and attitude on reproductive health

Knowledge and attitude on reproductive health

Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The research methodology includes the research approach, design, variables, setting of the study, population, sample, description of the instruments, validity and reliability of the tool, data collection procedure and data analysis.

Research approach

In this study Experimental approach was adopted.

Research design

The research design was quasi-experimental and one group pre-test post-test in nature.

X = Audio teaching programme

Independent variable

In this present study audio teaching programme is the independent variable.

Dependent variable

In this present study knowledge and attitude on reproductive health is dependent variable.

Setting of the study

Study was conducted in All India association of Blind school hostel in Sundarajam Patti and C.S.I girl's Blind hostel (Oliyagam) at Madurai.

All India association of Blind school hostel

It is 14 kilometers away from C.S.I Jeyaraj Annapackiam College of nursing, Madurai. The school has a total of 60 visually challenged women are staying in the hostel. Among them 40 visually challenged women within the age group of 15 - 23 yrs were included and remaining of 20 visually challenged girls were below 14 yrs.

C.S.I. girl's Blind hostel (Oliyagam)

It is 10 kilometers away from C.S.I. Jeyaraj Annapackiam College of nursing, Madurai. The hostel has a total of 40 students are staying in the hostel. Among them 30 visually challenged women were within 15-23yrs of age were included and remaining of 10 visually challenged girls were below 14 yrs.

Population

The target population for the study was all the visually challenged women at Madurai, the accessible population was the visually challenged women with in the age group of 15-23 yrs in All India association of Blind school hostel and C.S.I. girl's Blind hostel (Oliyagam) at Madurai. Who met the inclusion criteria were included for the study.

Sample and sample size

The sample size was 70 visually challenged women, In that 40 visually challenged women were from All India association of Blind school hostel and 30 visually challenged women were from C.S.I. girl's Blind hostel (Oliyagam) at Madurai.

Sampling technique

The sampling method used was non probability purposive sampling technique.

Criteria for sample selection

The study was conducted based on the following criteria regarding the selection of samples.

Inclusion criteria

Visually challenged women who were,

age group of 15-23yrs

willing to participate in the study

able to communicate in Tamil

Exclusion criteria

Visually challenged women who were,

with hearing impairment as reported by them

refused to participate in the study

not available during the time of data collection

Development of audio teaching programme

The researcher prepared the audio teaching programme after an expansive literature review. The content of audio teaching programme regarding reproductive health includes anatomy and physiology of reproductive tract, menstrual hygiene, sexual behavior & sex education, sexually transmitted disease and contraceptive devices respectively. The audio visual aids CD player and audio CD were used for explaining the content regarding reproductive health. The time taken for audio teaching program was 40 Mts.

Development of the tool

The instrument was developed by the investigator with the help of various resources and review of literatures. The questionnaire was prepared to assess the knowledge and attitude among visually challenged women regarding reproductive health. Structured interview questionnaire is the most convenient method. The questionnaire was administered through interview technique. This approach has the obvious advantages of maximizing the number of completed questions. The tool consists of three parts.

Description of the tool

Part I - Demographic data

Selected variables were age, religion, educational status, area of living, type of blindness, age at attained menarche and source of information.

Part II - Structured interview questionnaire for assessing knowledge

It consists of 25 items, in 5 aspects of reproductive health such as anatomy and physiology of reproductive tract, menstrual hygiene, sexual behavior & sex education, sexually transmitted disease and contraceptive devices respectively. Each aspect consists of 5 multiple choice questions. The total score was 25. Each question consists of four responses, with one best response. A score of one was given for the best response and score zero was given for the wrong response. For the purposes of study, the level of knowledge was classified in to 3 levels,

<50% - Inadequate knowledge

51% to 75% - Moderately adequate knowledge

> 76% - Adequate knowledge

Part III - Structured interview 3 point likert scale for assessing attitude

It includes statement on attitude regarding reproductive health such as reproductive health, anatomy and physiology of reproductive tract, menstrual hygiene, sexual behavior & sex education, sexually transmitted disease and contraceptive devices respectively. Each aspect consists of 5 statements, totally 25 statements among which 20 were positive statements and 5 were negative statements with 3 point likert scale such as "agree", "uncertain" and "disagree". For positive statement agree was given the score "two" and uncertain was given the score "one", "zero" for disagree. The reverse score was given to negative statements.

<50% - Negative attitude

51% to 75% - Neutral attitude

> 76% - Positive attitude

Validity and Reliability of the tool

The tool was validated for content by 4 nursing experts, including 1 medical professional and 1 Biostatistician. Comments and suggestions were invited and appropriate modifications were made accordingly. The tool was refined and finalized, after establishing the validity. The tool was translated to Tamil with expert guidance and retranslated to English thereby language validity was established. The reliability of the tool was established by test retest method. The interview questionnaire was administered to 10 visually challenged women two times, at an interval of 5 days. Reliability was computed by using Karl Pearson's co-relation coefficient method and it was found to be reliable (r= 0.88).

Validity of the audio teaching programme

The content of audio teaching programme was evaluated by experts for the appropriateness, adequacy, organization of content and language.

Pilot study

The pilot study is a miniature of actual main study. Purpose of the pilot study was to find out feasibility of conducting the study and decide the plan for statistical analysis. It was conducted among 7 visually challenged women were selected by non probability purposive sampling technique, the visually challenged women were selected from the Agalvizhi blind hostel at Madurai. Pretest was conducted by use of structure interview knowledge questionnaire and 3 point likert scale for attitude, followed by audio teaching programme on reproductive health was administered to the visually challenged women by using audio CD player without much difficulty. After 7days post test was conducted with the same questionnaire. The time taken to complete the tool was formed to be satisfactory in term of simplicity and clarity. Based on the time of the data collection, arbitrary decision was taken to keep the sample size to 70. No change was made in the tool after pilot study as the tool was found reliable.

Data collection procedure

Data collection is the gathering of information needed to address the research problem. The study was done for the specified period of 6 weeks, with permission from administrator of All India association of Blind school hostel and Incharge person of C.S.I Girl's Blind hostel (Oliyagam), at Madurai. 70 visually challenged women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected by purposive sampling of which 40 from All India association of Blind school hostel in Sundarajam Patti and 30 from C.S.I girl's Blind hostel (Oliyagam) at Madurai. Confidentiality was ensured. The purpose of the study was explained and the informed consent was obtained from the visually challenged women.

The investigator conducted pre-test by interviewing the samples to collect information on demographic factors, knowledge and attitude. The average time taken to collect information from one subject was 25-30 minutes. Samples were divided into 7 groups with each 10 visually challenged women for the convenience of both investigator and the participant to ensure the effectiveness of audio teaching by avoiding unwanted distractions and to pay close observation towards participants for their active listening. Audio teaching programme on reproductive health was given through audio CD and preliminary instruction about how to raise doubts during teaching was provided prior to teaching. Students doubts regarding anatomy and physiology of female reproductive system was cleared by using model which they can learn through tactile perception. 7 days after audio teaching post test was conducted through interview method and CD of the same has been given to the entire participant for future references.

Plan for data analysis

Data analysis is the systematic organization and synthesis of research data and testing of the research hypothesis using the data. The data collected from subjects were compiled and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Protection of human rights

Research proposal was approved by the dissertation committee prior to the pilot study and main study. Permission was sought from the head of the maternity nursing department of C.S.I Jeyaraj Annapackiam College of nursing, Madurai and get concern from visually challenged women and their Incharge authorities before starting the data collection.

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