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An Affair Of Honor Woodrow Wilson Essay

An Affair Of Honor: Woodrow Wilson Essay, Research Paper

An Affair of Honor: Woodrow Wilson and the Occupation of Veracruz is an in-depth look at the policies Wilson followed to occupy Mexico during the reign of General Victoriano Huerta. The invasion happened in 1914, when military troops docked at the harbor of Veracruz and took over the city. The occupation became a learning experience for our Nation and especially our President in foreign affairs in helping a Democracy get started in another country. The author conveys his thoughts in one passage ?Wilson, however, clothed American aggression with the sanctimonious raiment of idealism. In insisting upon the morality of his acts, he aroused both the hatred and the scorn of the Mexicans-hatred over the invasion but a deep scorn for what they saw as his hypocrisy?(Quirk). This stated thesis expresses the actual feelings Quirk has for the President of the United States.

The book was 1st published in 1962, 48yrs after the invasion of Veracruz. So, the author had to use many sources to get his point across for writing the book. He used many published reports to illustrate his idea of Veracruz. He used books to get quotes, such as ?Arthur S. Link?s Woodrow Wilson: The New Freedom, Ray S. Baker?s Woodrow Wilson, Life and Letters and Harley Notter?s The Origins of the Foreign Policy of Woodrow Wilson?(Quirk 173). These were published books dealing with the President and how he conducted himself while in office. Newspapers of the past are the historian?s staff of life?(Quirk 174). He notes that in his writings many newspapers were used but he could not tell if factual or not. He also used the Mexican Herald to help get the same types of sources and compare, to help assess his claims. He helps to list his sources on the bottom of each page that he uses a quote. This gives the reader a better way to evaluate the passage in the book by looking it up by its source. The author logically defends his thesis by pointing out the bad decisions Wilson makes in his invasion. Trusting in the author?s thoughts about President Wilson, it seems the haste judgments of the President were not rational.

The statements in this book talked mostly about Woodrow Wilson and not enough about the leader of Mexico, Huerta. Maybe telling more about the Mexican side would help interest people more to read up about it. Also, the beginning of the book was the slowest part until the federals captured the marines, then it started to get interesting. Figuring a fight would break loose, but only to get disappointed it never did. The book was decent and getting to read it made the understanding of Veracruz clear. The occurrence of Veracruz in our American History shed light on a new subject to read about, never knowing exactly what happened. So, learning about this made it that much more enjoyable to read. Also, the tactics that Wilson used while the occupation: like the cleaning of the city and passing inspection laws were key issues that made it attractive to read. As for recommending this book in reading for this course, yes do get other classes to read about it, just because of the closeness in location with Mexico geographically. Telling a friend to read this would be a good suggestion for him or her to learn more about Veracruz. The most exciting part of the book was the day of the invasion. This is when the American ships were all sitting outside the dock of Veracruz waiting and becoming anxious to start the attack. The dullest part was the 5 or 7 pages describing the city of Veracruz.

There are two reviews that came to my attention. The University of Kentucky Press posted the first review in 1962 for the Mississippi Valley Historical Association. This review summarized all of Quirk?s optimism and helped talk about the book very well. The review got the point across about the book, but did not establish good facts about how Quirk went about on getting his information. The review was published in 1962, the same year it came out.

The Book Review Digest of 1963 had the most thorough and strait to the point review. The review was published in 1963 and on page 826 of the Digest. This published review noted. Professor Quirk has done an excellent job of finding the available materials both in the United States and Mexico?(Digest).

In An Affair of Honor: Woodrow Wilson And the Occupation of Veracruz the author bashes the President for his misuse of power. Quirk lets the reader know his stand on the invasion in the opening preface of the book. The main problem with the occupation was that the problems in Mexico did not change when the invasion was over. Only thing it did was get Huerta out of rule in Mexico. This was the main plan that Wilson wanted to establish in Mexico. So, if anything good came out of the situation, this would be the only thing.

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Реферат: An Affair Of Honor Woodrow Wilson Essay

An Affair Of Honor: Woodrow Wilson Essay, Research Paper

An Affair of Honor: Woodrow Wilson and the Occupation of Veracruz is an in-depth look at the policies Wilson followed to occupy Mexico during the reign of General Victoriano Huerta. The invasion happened in 1914, when military troops docked at the harbor of Veracruz and took over the city. The occupation became a learning experience for our Nation and especially our President in foreign affairs in helping a Democracy get started in another country. The author conveys his thoughts in one passage ?Wilson, however, clothed American aggression with the sanctimonious raiment of idealism. In insisting upon the morality of his acts, he aroused both the hatred and the scorn of the Mexicans-hatred over the invasion but a deep scorn for what they saw as his hypocrisy?(Quirk). This stated thesis expresses the actual feelings Quirk has for the President of the United States.

The book was 1st published in 1962, 48yrs after the invasion of Veracruz. So, the author had to use many sources to get his point across for writing the book. He used many published reports to illustrate his idea of Veracruz. He used books to get quotes, such as ?Arthur S. Link?s Woodrow Wilson: The New Freedom, Ray S. Baker?s Woodrow Wilson, Life and Letters and Harley Notter?s The Origins of the Foreign Policy of Woodrow Wilson?(Quirk 173). These were published books dealing with the President and how he conducted himself while in office. Newspapers of the past are the historian?s staff of life?(Quirk 174). He notes that in his writings many newspapers were used but he could not tell if factual or not. He also used the Mexican Herald to help get the same types of sources and compare, to help assess his claims. He helps to list his sources on the bottom of each page that he uses a quote. This gives the reader a better way to evaluate the passage in the book by looking it up by its source. The author logically defends his thesis by pointing out the bad decisions Wilson makes in his invasion. Trusting in the author?s thoughts about President Wilson, it seems the haste judgments of the President were not rational.

The statements in this book talked mostly about Woodrow Wilson and not enough about the leader of Mexico, Huerta. Maybe telling more about the Mexican side would help interest people more to read up about it. Also, the beginning of the book was the slowest part until the federals captured the marines, then it started to get interesting. Figuring a fight would break loose, but only to get disappointed it never did. The book was decent and getting to read it made the understanding of Veracruz clear. The occurrence of Veracruz in our American History shed light on a new subject to read about, never knowing exactly what happened. So, learning about this made it that much more enjoyable to read. Also, the tactics that Wilson used while the occupation: like the cleaning of the city and passing inspection laws were key issues that made it attractive to read. As for recommending this book in reading for this course, yes do get other classes to read about it, just because of the closeness in location with Mexico geographically. Telling a friend to read this would be a good suggestion for him or her to learn more about Veracruz. The most exciting part of the book was the day of the invasion. This is when the American ships were all sitting outside the dock of Veracruz waiting and becoming anxious to start the attack. The dullest part was the 5 or 7 pages describing the city of Veracruz.

There are two reviews that came to my attention. The University of Kentucky Press posted the first review in 1962 for the Mississippi Valley Historical Association. This review summarized all of Quirk?s optimism and helped talk about the book very well. The review got the point across about the book, but did not establish good facts about how Quirk went about on getting his information. The review was published in 1962, the same year it came out.

The Book Review Digest of 1963 had the most thorough and strait to the point review. The review was published in 1963 and on page 826 of the Digest. This published review noted. Professor Quirk has done an excellent job of finding the available materials both in the United States and Mexico?(Digest).

In An Affair of Honor: Woodrow Wilson And the Occupation of Veracruz the author bashes the President for his misuse of power. Quirk lets the reader know his stand on the invasion in the opening preface of the book. The main problem with the occupation was that the problems in Mexico did not change when the invasion was over. Only thing it did was get Huerta out of rule in Mexico. This was the main plan that Wilson wanted to establish in Mexico. So, if anything good came out of the situation, this would be the only thing.

Honor killings of women Paper by

honor killings of women

Honor Killings of Women

[Name of Institution]

Honor Killings of Women

This analyzes the interference of the United States in the affairs of other countries especially when it comes to human rights in the light of religious and cultural philosophies. In this era everybody speaks about gender equality. while it is confirmed that in some Muslim countries the rights of both are not equal. Killings of Women were common in the rural areas of some Muslim countries where awareness

of human rights are not so common While Islam forbids such domestic violence. While correct teachings of Islam always support the equality amongst Men and Women. King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia supports the equality matter in his kingdom. In Saudi Arabia. Women were not allowed to drive a car even not travel without husband or guardian. but after king Abdullah came to the kingdom every necessary right has been given to the women. As we already know that humanity is on the top of everything. So Honor killings are teachings. every religion has its own perspectives. It is a well known fact that the Muslim countries have very significant problems with the gender equality and women are not allowed even to wear the clothes they would like to. Women were not allowed to make male friends the only punishment for those who attempt these things was just death. These honor killing have already become a.

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An Affair of Honour - critical analysis and commentary

14 – An Affair of Honour

a critical examination of Nabokov's collected stories

‘An Affair of Honour’ (September 1927) was originally called ‘Podlets’ (‘The Cur’ or ‘The Scoundrel’) which signals the topic more directly, but without the irony of its present title. For the affair is anything but honourable. The story is in fact a grotesque variation on the subject of duels, which occur so often in Russian literature. Nabokov acknowledges his debt to Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin and ‘The Shot’, and to Lermontov’s A Hero of Our Time by mentioning them in the text, and he cites in his editorial note ‘Chekhov’s magnificent novelle Single Combat ‘ as a romantic theme on which his own story is a ‘belated variation’.[RB,p.82]

The setting is yet again Russian émigré Berlin, and the topic which provokes the duel is one to which Nabokov returns over and over again throughout his work – adultery. Anton Petrovich (who with the same forename and initials, is a second nod to Chekhov) returns home unexpectedly early from a business trip to discover that he is being cuckolded by his associate Berg. He immediately challenges him to a duel: ‘He pulled off the glove with a final yank and threw it awkwardly at Berg. The glove slapped against the wall and dropped into the washstand pitcher. “Good shot”, said Berg’ [RB,p.86].

This squalid little scene encapsulates the whole story. For Anton Petrovich is clumsy and cowardly: he is also fat, self-satisfied, and utterly conventional. Berg on the other hand is a big man with broad shoulders, full of insouciance and physical confidence. More importantly he is a former White Army man who has killed more than five hundred Reds.

Anton Petrovich compounds the farce by choosing as seconds Mityushin and Gnushke, two drunken fools who come from the Rosencrantz and Guildenstern school of malevolent funsters – one of many such grotesque duos which crop up in Nabokov’s work: [two similar but more sinister thugs will appear shortly in ‘The Leonardo’]. He then goes back home, congratulates himself on his sangfroid – ‘Extraordinary, how this man retains his composure – does not even forget to wind his watch’ (p.92), then vomits all over the carpet with anxiety.

He tries to shed personal responsibility for what has happened – ‘all that talk about duels had started’ (p.93) (which he had started himself) – and he hopes that the seconds will not make the arrangements for the duel. But they do, and Anton Petrovich is seized by the terrible realisation that he may be killed. His mind is in a whirl of fear, half-baked superstition, and idées reçues. ‘when the duel starts, I shall turn up my jacket collar – that’s the custom, I think’ (p.102). He is even worried by such irrelevancies as the fact that his suit may be ruined if he is shot.

Overwhelmed by his own cowardice, he sneaks away from the appointed place and rushes back into the centre of Berlin to hide in a hotel room. Nabokov then uses the technique he employed in ‘Details of a Sunset’ and takes him back home, where he discovers that Berg has run off too and his ordeal is therefore over: ‘everything is now just dandy. And you come out of it honourably, while [Berg] is disgraced forever’ (p.115).

But of course as even Anton Petrovich himself realises, ‘such things don’t happen in real life’ (p.115). He is in fact still in the hotel room, cowering, not knowing what to do. The story closes with him ‘woolfing gluttonously at a ham sandwich on which he immediately soiled his fingers and chin with the hanging margin of fat’ (p.115).

This is another example of inventive use of traditional material – a variation which presents the duel-which-doesn’t-take-place. The story is open-ended. As in ‘The Return of Chorb’ we are not told ‘what happens next’ because this is not important. Nabokov’s purpose is to offer a character study of vulgarity, incompetence, and moral cowardice and to ring the changes on a traditional subject.

There are also some finely developed examples of Nabokov’s skill in organising structural details to hold together the story. When Anton Petrovich visits Mityushin he declares “I want you to be my second” (p.89) and when he sneaks off from the duel at the other end of the story he does so by pretending to go to the lavatory: “Excuse me a second” (p.109). These are the sort of echoes, poetic repetitions, and ironic counterpoints (even when used for comic effect, as here) which were being used by writers such as Mansfield, Woolf, and Nabokov (all of whom were admirers of Chekhov, one notes) to develop the short story as a more condensed and tightly organised literary form.

When Anton Petrovich escapes back to the city centre he meets an old colleague Leontiev – something of a polite bore, and also a fellow cuckold. Leontiev dogs his steps for a while in a manner which increases the suspense as we wonder if the escapee will be caught. But we eventually realise that he wishes to ask Anton Petrovich’s advice and talk something over with him – and when he mentions his wife’s name we realise that we have encountered her very briefly earlier in the story – lying in a drunken stupor in Mityushin’s apartment.

We perhaps view Leontiev in a more sympathetic light (the fellow cuckold seeking help) but more importantly we see two minor characters connected symmetrically across the pages of the story to reinforce two of its themes – adultery and moral squalor. Both Leontiev and his wife appear to be superfluous to the story until their significance is brought into focus by this one deft touch.

What ‘An Affair of Honour’ illustrates is Nabokov’s ability to take a subject deep from the stockpile of Russian cultural history and to ring inventive changes upon it. He first ironically inverts it: the duel is initiated by an abject coward. Then he subverts it: the duel does not take place. And then instead of the conventional ending to duel stories (somebody being shot, or as in the case of Pushkin’s ‘The Shot’, demonstrating the skill they could have used and thus illustrating a point of honour) he produces an open-ended narrative with the protagonist in mid-flight from his rival and his own cowardice.

We have no idea what will happen to him afterwards, and this is anyway not important. As closure to the story Nabokov offers Anton Platonov’s negative epiphany as he slides hopelessly into his spiritual abyss – rather in the same manner as the narrator of ‘Terror’.

Thus, as a substitute for the traditional requirement of plot resolution we are presented with character revelation. As the short story writer Eudora Welty observes, this is what often distinguishes the modern from the traditional short story: ‘the plot of a short story in many instances is quite openly a projection of character’.

© Roy Johnson 2005

Vladimir Nabokov links

Nabokov’s Complete Short Stories – critical analyses

Vladimir Nabokov: an illustrated life

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Affairs of Honor

Affairs of Honor

In this extraordinary book, Joanne Freeman offers a major reassessment of political culture in the early years of the American republic. By exploring both the public actions and private papers of key figures such as Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr, and Alexander Hamilton, Freeman reveals an alien and profoundly unstable political world grounded on the code of honor. In the absence of a party system and with few examples to guide America’s experiment in republican governance, the rituals and rhetoric of honor provided ground rules for political combat. Gossip, print warfare, and dueling were tools used to jostle for status and form alliances in an otherwise unstructured political realm. These political weapons were all deployed in the tumultuous presidential election of 1800—an event that nearly toppled the new republic.

By illuminating this culture of honor, Freeman offers new understandings of some of the most perplexing events of early American history, including the notorious duel between Burr and Hamilton. A major reconsideration of early American politics, Affairs of Honor offers a profoundly human look at the anxieties and political realities of leaders struggling to define themselves and their role in the new nation.

Joanne B. Freeman, professor of history at Yale University, is also the editor of Alexander Hamilton: Writings, published by the Library of America.

Affairs of Honor stunningly transforms our understanding of the Founding Fathers and their political culture. Joanne Freeman reveals that in their half-Anglicized, half-democratic political culture, early American politicians bound themselves to the aims of reputation, regional loyalty, and, above all, honor. In addition, she brilliantly dissects the roles of gossip, self-vindicating articles and tracts, and discrete hierarchies of power. Duels, she persuades us, were fought to retain an insulted patron’s political alliances as much as to vindicate personal principle. Although alien to our notions of fairness, the actors in Affairs of Honor pursued power in ways not altogether different from the realities (and even sleaziness) of today’s partisanship. This dynamic and penetrating work will be debated—and increasingly appreciated—for many years to come.”—Bertram Wyatt-Brown, University of Florida, author of Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in The Old South

“Professor Freeman not only sheds new light on that complex code–cult?–of honor in American eighteenth-century life and politics which made inevitable the Burr-Hamilton duel, but she has also, à propos, written the clearest account to date of the presidential election of 1800, in which Jefferson and Burr tied for first place, causing Jefferson to behave with more than his usual subtlety while imputing, characteristically, bad faith to his rival Burr, who, according to their original agreement, raised not a finger in his own behalf and so behaved honorably. After two centuries, it is nice to know what really went on in that Dark Age when we had no kindly Supreme Court to determine our elections 5–4.”—Gore Vidal

Affairs of Honor is a landmark work in the history of our national origins. With considerable style and grace, Freeman shows that the central story line must include such old-fashioned notions as honor and character, and that, in her capable hands, political history is once again alive and well.”—Joseph J. Ellis, author of Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation

"Affairs of Honor is a scintillating contribution to the recent revival of interest in the political culture of the early Republic. Joanne Freeman sensitively analyzes how matters of personal trust and its evil twin, suspicion, worked to complicate the transition from old patterns of gentry politics to the new modes of organized partisan competition. Vividly written and analytically incisive, Affairs of Honor heralds the debut of an imaginative and perceptive scholar."—Jack Rakove, Coe Professor of History and American Studies, and Professor of Political Science, Stanford University

“Sex-tinged scandals, political mudslinging, sectarian division, tabloid exposes: Bill Clinton may have had a bad time, but the Founding Fathers had it worse. To judge by Freeman’s vivid anecdotes and smart analysis, it’s a wonder the republic survived the Founders. Good reading, especially for students of political culture and early American history.”—Kirkus Reviews

“[A] lively book.”—David S. Broder, Washington Post

“Freeman’s prose is lively, and she balances entertaining narrative with sharp analysis. The last few years have seen a spate of books about the founding fathers and the early republic: Freeman’s elegant study of honor and politics in the new nation will easily tower over most of them.”—Publishers Weekly (starred review)

Affairs of Honor . . has much to teach political theorists and American historians, as well as other souls with a merely personal interest in how to live. [An] excellent book.”—Harvey Mansfield, Weekly Standard

“A landmark revision of political history.”—Chronicle of Higher Education

“[A] landmark study of Hamilton and the founders.”—Jeff Sharlet, Chronicle of Higher Education

"Admirable and entertaining. Ms. Freeman evaluates the weapons of ’honor defense’—gossip, letters, newspapers and even dueling—and she does so with a vigor befitting the lively political culture of the 1790s."—Bill Kauffman, Wall Street Journal

Affairs of Honor is a romp through the personal notes and public papers of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and others who joined forces against the British monarchy and then fought one another about how to replace it. [It] is both well-researched and well-written, providing a read nearly as lively and idiosyncratic as the Founding Fathers themselves.”—Scott Bernard Nelson, Boston Globe

“[Freeman’s] explanation of the rules by which elite politicians fought is important. It allows a fuller understanding of contemporary political writings and of events such as the Burr-Hamilton duel, the elections of 1796 and 1800, even the 1798 Sedition Act. Because [the book] lets us see the past as contemporaries saw it and imaginatively understand what they did and why, Affairs of Honor is, indeed, a landmark book that demands the attention of everyone with a serious interest in the history of American politics.”—Pauline Maier, Washington Post Book World

“A slew of popular historians have gone on tour in recent years with their speculative psychodramas about the American founders. Joanne B. Freeman puts them all to shame. In her probing book, there are no heroes, no villains—only politicians. This hard-hitting, fast-paced, comprehensively researched book is one of the most intelligent and innovative studies in early American political culture to have appeared in recent years. Affairs of Honor is a welcome antidote to Hollywood history.”—Andrew Burstein, American Scholar

“This hard-hitting, fast-paced, comprehensively researched book is one of the most intelligent and innovative studies in early American political culture to have appeared in recent years. [Freeman] adds much to our knowledge of the origins of partisan wrangling.”—Andrew Burstein, American Scholar

“A landmark book.”—Pauline Maier, Washington Post Book World (Book World Raves-Nonfiction)

“[An] excellent and thought-provoking new study. This book is clearly scholarship of a very high order, sensitively deploying the latest ethnographic methodology and displaying a masterful command of a wide range of primary sources, from diaries and correspondence to broadsides and newspapers. At the same time, Freeman reaches out to a general audience with an admirable writing style and telling use of anecdotes. Never less than enjoyable and informative and, even when it triggers skepticism, always thought-provoking.”—Marc M. Arkin, The New Criterion

“I taught Affairs of Honor in my undergraduate Early Republic seminar, and it was wildly successful. The students enjoyed it thoroughly, and we had a very lively and thought-provoking discussion that ranged widely across the book. It teaches extraordinarily well.”—Serena Zabin, Department of History, Carleton College

“This book is an exciting exploration of the culture of honor that underpinned the politics of the early American Republic. [Freeman’s] command and close reading of these sources is admirable, and has allowed her to harvest a crop of new insights into the history of the period. This achievement, coupled with a style that is compulsively readable, makes this book a serious delight.”—Virginia Quarterly Review

“Freeman’s often dazzling work is distinctive in its subject matter, its analytical power, and its style. Explicitly, it puts forth a new way of interpreting the public history of the early nation. Implicitly, it asks us to reorient our approach to that history. Affairs of Honor is one of those books so rich in fresh insights and ideas that it defies summary or adequate sampling. Part of its value is the contribution it makes. to such topics as the history of books, of the circulation of ideas, of clandestine publishing, and of gossip, all subjects that have gained a specialized historical literature of their own in recent years. Freeman’s splendid [book] has set a high standard for those who will choose now to venture into these historical waters.”—James M. Banner, H-Net Reviews

“Joanne Freeman’s laser-like concentration on ‘the culture of honor,’ in a book handsomely produced and promoted. brings fresh light to an aspect of early national life that future writers on that subject will ignore at their peril.”—New York History

“Engagingly written and wonderfully insightful, Joanne Freeman’s Affairs of Honor offers a refreshing new perspective on the politics of the early Republic.”—Peter McNamara, The Review of Politics

“A masterful reinterpretation of politics in the first decades of the republic, Professor Freeman’s book provides an entirely new perspective on the conduct of politics, both in the formal arena of electioneering and the informal circles of personal conduct. It poses familiar questions and offers fresh and compelling new answers. It recaptures the past and reminds us of how contrived political discourse can be, and how it must be approached and interpreted. Professor Freeman’s book is a landmark in our progress toward understanding democratic politics and its practitioners.”—Selection committee for the 2002 best book prize by the Historians of the Early American Republic

“A wonderfully fresh perception of the political culture of the early republic—a perception that clearly privileges ‘culture’ over ‘politics’. Affairs of Honor not only is a refreshing antidote to those advocating the ‘primacy of parties’ but also constitutes a wonderful addition to recent scholarship by providing provocative new insights into the culture of the early republic.”—Robert E. Shalhope, Journal of American History

“[A] fascinating new book. This book dazzles on several fronts. Freeman writes in an extraordinarily engaging style. The research is impressive, both broad and deep. The analysis is bold, overturning many established truths that govern contemporary tellings of the founding story. The method is consistent; Freeman exhumes a familiar document or an event and plumbs it for hidden implications of honor.”—Edith Gelles, Journal of the Early Republic

"[Freeman’s] delightful book, Affairs of Honor, elucidates the central role of honor in the politics of the Early Republic."—Larry D. Cramer, H-Net Reviews

“A ripping good read. The book should appeal to a general public continuously drawn to the founders and the world they made, and it also has much to say to scholars who thought they knew this period well. This book will become a prerequisite for a greater understanding of the volatile and passionate politics of our national government’s early years. Joanne Freeman is to be congratulated; her deft blending of culture and politics reveals how much we still have to learn from the political history of the founding period.”—Stan Deaton, The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography

“[A] wonderfully written and deeply engaging book. I suspect we will be grappling with its implications for a long time to come.”—Jeanne Boydston, Journal of Southern History

Affairs of Honor should be required reading for all students of the early national period.”—Carl J. Richard, Florida Historical Quarterly

Affairs of Honor is the most important book that has been written on the origins of American politics in many, many years. Joanne Freeman’s work is enormously original, and the scholarship is impeccable. This book is a real breakthrough—we’ll never look at politics in this period in the same way.”—Jan Lewis, Rutgers University