Melissopalynology is the study of pollen contained in honey and, in particular, the pollen's source. By studying the pollen in a sample of honey, it is possible to gain evidence of the geographical location and genus of the plants that the honey bees visited, although honey may also contain airborne pollens from anemophilous plants, spores. and dust due to attraction by the electrostatic charge of bees .
Generally, melissopalynology is used to combat fraud and inaccurate labelling of honey. Information gained from the study of a given sample of honey (and pollen) is useful when substantiating claims of a particular source for the sample. Monofloral honey derived from one particular source plant may be more valuable than honey derived from many types of plants. The price of honey also varies according to the region from which it originates.External links
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Melissopalynologie — ist die Untersuchung von Honig und den darin enthaltenen Pollen. Im weiteren Sinne beinhaltet sie auch die Untersuchung der Herkunft dieser Pollen. Durch Analysieren der Pollen in einer Honigprobe ist es möglich das geografische Herkunftsgebiet… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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melissopalynological — adjective Of or pertaining to melissopalynology … Wiktionary
Melissopalynology is the study of pollen contained in honey Harmonized methods of melissopalynology. Werner VON DER OHE, Livia PERSANO ODDO, Maria Lucia PIANA, Monique MORLOT, Peter MARTIN, 2004 and, in particular, the pollen's source. By studying the pollen in a sample of honey, it is possible to gain evidence of the geographical location and genus of the plants that the honey bee s visited, although honey may also contain airborne pollens from anemophilous plants, spore s, and dust due to attraction by the electrostatic charge of bee s.
In general, melissopalynology is used to combat fraud and inaccurate labelling of honey. Information gained from the study of a given sample of honey (and pollen) is useful when substantiating claims of a particular source for the sample. Monofloral honey derived from one particular source plant may be more valuable than honey derived from many types of plants. The price of honey also varies according to the region from which it originates.External links
ayguns/Melissopalynology.htm. 16 May 2011.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Melissopalynology ".
The Protected Regional Area of the Hanbury Botanical Gardens. in collaboration with the Laboratory of Palynology (DISTAV) of the University of Genoa. starting from March 2012 is carrying out the melissopalynological analysis of the honey produced by the bees of the “Azienda Apistica Miele Monte Abellio” of Carlo Andrea Eremita, which has prepared a small apiary inside the Hanbury Botanical Gardens.
The Melissopalynology is a branch of Palynology that studies the botanical and geographical origin of the honeys. Bees in fact, visiting the flowers to collect nectar, also draw pollen grains, which can be traced later in honey.
These are recognizable to the analysis performed with an optical microscope (MO) thanks to the different morphology (size, type of openings, ornamentation of the surface of the granule etc).
The melissopalynological analysis allows to trace, in part, the nectar sources attractive and visited by bees. The experimental data of presence / absence and frequency of different types of pollen, interpreted together with the dynamics of floral biology, allow the analyze of the role of bees as honey producers and as pollinators, including those exotic plant species hosted in the protected area of GBH.
Giardini Botanici Hanbury
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Melissopalynology is the study of pollen contained in honey  and, in particular, the pollen's source. By studying the pollen in a sample of honey, it is possible to gain evidence of the geographical location and genus of the plants that the honey bees visited, although honey may also contain airborne pollens from anemophilous plants, spores. and dust due to attraction by the electrostatic charge of bees .
In general, melissopalynology is used to combat fraud and inaccurate labelling of honey. Information gained from the study of a given sample of honey (and pollen) is useful when substantiating claims of a particular source for the sample. Monofloral honey derived from one particular source plant may be more valuable than honey derived from many types of plants. The price of honey also varies according to the region from which it originates.See also [ edit ] References [ edit ] External links [ edit ]
1. Pollen – Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes. Individual pollen grains are small enough to require magnification to see detail. The study of pollen is highly useful in paleoecology, paleontology, archaeology, forensics. Pollen in plants is used for transferring haploid genetic material from the anther of a single flower to the stigma of another in cross-pollination. In a case of self-pollination, this process takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower. Pollen itself is not the male gamete. Each grain contains vegetative cells and a generative cell. The generative cell divides to form the two sperm cells. Pollen is produced in the'microsporangium'. Pollen grains come in a wide variety of sizes, surface markings characteristic of the species. Pollen grains of pines, spruces are winged. That of the forget-me-not, is around 6 µm in diameter. Wind-borne pollen grains can be as large as about 90–100 µm. During flower development the anther is composed of a mass of cells that appear undifferentiated, except for a partially differentiated dermis. As the flower develops, four groups of sporogenous cells form within the anther.
Pollen – Tip of a tulip stamen with many grains of pollen
Pollen – Closeup image of a cactus flower and its stamens
Pollen – Scanning electron microscope image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis).
Pollen – Triporate pollen of Oenothera speciosa
2. Genus – A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus and Felis silvestris are two species within the genus Felis. Felis is a genus within the Felidae. The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. Moreover, genera should be composed of phylogenetic units of the same kind as other genera. The term comes from the Latin genus, a form cognate with gignere. The scientific name of a genus may be called generic epithet: it is always capitalized. It plays a pivotal role in the system of naming organisms. The standard way of other lower-ranked taxa is by binomial nomenclature. The generic name forms its first half. The specific name may be followed by subspecies names in zoology or a variety of infraspecific names in botany.
Genus – Number of reptile genera with a given number of species. Most genera have only one or a few species but a few may have hundreds. Based on data from the Reptile Database (as of May 2015).
3. Honey bee – Currently, only seven species of bee are recognized, with a total of 44 subspecies, though historically, from six to eleven species have been recognized. The best known bee is the Western honey bee, domesticated for honey production and crop pollination. Honey bees represent only a small fraction of the roughly 20,000 known species of bees. Only members of the genus Apis are true honey bees. The study of bees including honey bees is known as melittology. The genus name Apis is Latin for "bee". Nonetheless, compounds gradually solidify in ways that do not always comply with prescription. Notably, living representatives of the earliest lineages to diverge have their center of origin there. The first Apis bees appear in European deposits. Fewer still have been thoroughly studied. No Apis species existed in the New World before the introduction of A. mellifera by Europeans. Only one fossil species is documented from the New World, Apis nearctica, known from a 14-million-year-old specimen from Nevada. Most species have historically been cultured or at least exploited for honey and beeswax to their native ranges. Honey bees are the only extant members of the tribe Apini. Today's honey bees constitute three clades.
Honey bee – Apis dorsata on Tribulus terrestris in Hyderabad, India
Honey bee – Apis dorsata on comb
Honey bee – Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) from Hong Kong
4. Anemophily – Anemophily or wind pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind. Almost all gymnosperms are anemophilous, as are many plants including grasses, rushes. Common anemophilous plants are oaks, sweet chestnuts, members of the family Juglandaceae. This distinguishes them from entomophilous and zoophilous species. Anemophilous pollen grains are light and non-sticky, so that they can be transported by air currents. They are typically 20–60 micrometres in diameter, although the pollen grains of Pinus species can be much larger and much less dense. Pollen from anemophilous plants tends to be lighter than pollen with very low nutritional value to insects. However, insects sometimes gather pollen from staminate anemophilous flowers at times when higher-protein pollens from entomophilous flowers are scarce. Anemophilous pollens may also be inadvertently captured by bees' electrostatic field. This may explain why, though bees are not observed to visit ragweed flowers, its pollen is often found in honey made during the ragweed floral bloom. Anemophily is an adaptation that helps to separate the male and female reproductive systems of a single plant, reducing the effects of inbreeding. It often accompanies dioecy – the presence of male and female reproductive structures on separate plants. Almost all pollens that are allergens are from anemophilous species. Grasses are the most important producers of aeroallergens in most temperate regions, with meadow species producing more pollen than moorland species. Media related to Wind pollination at Wikimedia Commons
Anemophily – The flowers of wind-pollinated flowering plants, such as this saw-tooth oak (Quercus acutissima), are less showy than insect-pollinated flowers.
Anemophily – Anemophilous plants, such as this pine (Pinus) produce large quantities of pollen, which is carried on the wind.
5. Spore – By contrast, gametes are units of sexual reproduction. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa. Bacterial spores are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Spores are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte. This cycle is known as alternation of generations. The spore derives from the ancient Greek word σπορά spora, meaning "seed, sowing," related to σπόρος sporos, "sowing," and σπείρειν speirein, "to sow." Spores germinate to give rise to haploid gametophytes, while seeds germinate to give rise to diploid sporophytes. Vascular plant spores are always haploid. Vascular plants heterosporous. Plants that are homosporous produce spores of the same type. Spores can be classified in several ways: In fungus-like organisms, spores are often classified by the structure in which meiosis and spore production occurs. Since fungi are often classified according to their spore-producing structures, these spores are often characteristic of a particular taxon of the fungi. Sporangiospores: spores produced by a sporangium in many fungi such as zygomycetes.
Spore – Spores produced in a sporic life cycle.
Spore – Asci of Morchella elata, containing ascospores
Spore – Microscopic view of dehisced fern sporangia (no spores are visible)
6. Electrostatic – Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with the phenomena and properties of stationary or slow-moving electric charges. Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word for amber, electron, was the source of the word ` electricity'. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb's law. Electrostatics involves the buildup of charge on the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. This is because the charges that transfer are trapped there for a time enough for their effects to be observed. We begin with the magnitude of the electrostatic force between two point charges Q. It is convenient to call Q a source charge. As we develop the theory, more source charges will be added. The SI units of ε0 are equivalently F m − 1. Coulomb's constant is: k e ≈ 4 π ε 0 ≈ 8.987 551 787 × 10 9 N m 2 C − 2. E is a measured quantity. Electric field lines are useful for visualizing the electric field. Field lines terminate on negative charge.
Electrostatic – Paper strips attracted by a charged CD
Electrostatic – Electromagnetism
Electrostatic – Lightning over Oradea in Romania
7. Bee – Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently considered as a clade Anthophila. The actual number is probably higher. They are found in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants. Some species including honey bees, stingless bees live socially in colonies. Bees are adapted for feeding on the former primarily as an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae. Bee pollination is important both commercially; the decline in wild bees has increased the value of pollination by commercially managed hives of honey bees. They are small and often mistaken for wasps or flies. Vertebrate predators of bees include birds such as bee-eaters; insect predators include dragonflies. Human apiculture has been practised for millennia, since at least the times of Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. Apart from pollination, honey bees produce beeswax, royal jelly and propolis. Yeats's poem The Lake Isle of Innisfree. Bee larvae are included in the Javanese dish tawon, where they are eaten steamed with shredded coconut. The ancestors of bees were wasps in the Crabronidae, which were predators of other insects. This evolutionary scenario may have occurred within the vespoid wasps, where the pollen wasps evolved from predatory ancestors.
Bee – Melittosphex burmensis, a fossil bee preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous of Myanmar
Bee – Long-tongued bees and long-tubed flowers coevolved, like this Amegilla cingulata on Acanthus ilicifolius.
8. Apiology – Melittology is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of bees. Melittology covers the species found within the superfamily Apoidea comprising more than 20,000 species, including honey bees. Apiology - is the scientific study of honey bees. Honey bees are often chosen as a study group to answer questions on the evolution of social systems. Apidology is a variant spelling of apiology used outside of the Western Hemisphere, primarily in Europe; it is sometimes used interchangeably with melittology. Apicology - the study of honey bee ecology. Apiologists are served in scope. Charles Butler, early English beekeeper and researcher. Charles Dadant, Modernized beekeeping. Jan Dzierzon, Discovered parthenogenesis among bees, proposed first sex determining mechanism for any species. Communication over long distances at the University of South Florida, leading a team investigating recent dropping numbers of honey bees. Other bee taxonomy and paleontology at the University of Kansas. Nobel Prize winner, studied honey communication. Robert A. Holekamp, Early urban apiculturalist and advocate. Jay Hosler, Professor at Juniata College, Author of the award-winning comic Clan Apis.
Apiology – A bee drinking water
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