Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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A specific Learning difficulty is a classification including several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. Usually this is caused by an unknown factor. The unknown factor is the disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive and process information. People with a learning disability have trouble undertaking specific types of tasks if they are not supported or if the task is not differentiated in order for them to complete the simplified version.
A child with a specific learning difficulty is as able as any other child, except in one or two areas of their learning. For instance, they may find it difficult to recognise letters, or to cope with numbers or reading. There are many different types of specific learning difficulties, but the best known and publicised is dyslexia.
With dyslexia, the child has difficulty with spelling and reading. It may be difficult for parents and teachers to realise that a child has this sort of problem, especially if their development has progressed without concern in their early year's education. Often, the child will appear to understand, have good ideas, and join in activities, as well as other children and in some instances better than others. Sometimes it can take years for adults to realise that a child has a specific difficulty.
The British Psychological Society (1999) has given a broad definition of Dyslexia:
'Dyslexia is evident when accurate and fluent word reading and/or spelling develops very incompletely or with great difficulty. This focuses on literacy learning at the 'word level' and implies that the problem is severe and persistent despite appropriate learning opportunities. It provides the basis for a staged process of assessment through teaching'
Dyslexia is an inherited condition that makes it extremely difficult to read, write, and spell in their subject language. There are many persisting factors in dyslexia, which can appear from an early age. They will still be noticeable when the dyslexic child leaves school; these include good and bad days for no apparent reason in relation to their attitude and behaviour, short-term memory loss and sequencing, organisation and spoken language skills. It is thought that the reason people with dyslexia have problems with phonological processing is that some areas, their brain functions in a different way than people without the condition.
There are number of different theories about the causes of Dyslexia which all tend to support each other. The main point is that it is a genetic condition that changes how the brain deals with information, and that it is passed on through families. Dyslexia is thought to be a genetic condition which means it runs in families. It is estimated that if you have dyslexia there is 40%-60% likelihood that your child will also develop the condition.
There are different strategies used for teaching children with dyslexia. For example if you are at a secondary school in a science lab using diagrams it would be easier to label the equipment that is for use, so the students can use this information when writing up laboratory reports. Using computers for a dyslexic child is advantageous as it would be easier for them to type the work rather than writing the work on paper. To support a dyslexic child you need to make sure that messages and day to day classroom activities are written down, and never sent verbally. Also a daily check list for the pupil to refer to each evening would encourage a daily routine to help develop the child's own self-esteem and responsibilities and also encourage good organisational skills by the use of folders and dividers to keep work easily accessible and in an orderly fashion. Tasks need to be simplified down into small easily remembered pieces of information and if visual memory is poor, copying must be kept to a minimum as notes or handouts are far more useful. Another way of supporting the condition of the child is to sit the child fairly near the class teacher so that the teacher is available to help if necessary so that any support required is not to a minimum. A structured reading scheme that involves repetition and introduces new words slowly is extremely important. This allows the child to develop confidence and self esteem when reading. If there is one or two dyslexics in the class, a short list of structure-based words for their weekly spelling test, will be far more helpful than random words. Three or four irregular words can be included each week to challenge the child and eventually this should be seen to improve their spelling and writing skills.
Dyspraxia is a specific learning difficulty that affects the brain's ability to plan
sequences of movement. It is thought to be connected to the way that the brain develops, and can affect the planning of what to do and how to do it. It is often associated with problems of perception, language and thought.
"Dyspraxia is often described as a hidden problem, because children with the condition appear no different to those who don't have it. Up to ten per cent of the population may show symptoms of dyspraxia, with around two per cent being severely affected. Males are four times more likely to be affected than females. Dyspraxia sometimes runs in families". (BBC website 2008)
Students who have the learning difficulty dyspraxia will experience difficulties in gross motor skills meaning poor performance in sport, general clumsiness, poor balance, and difficulties in learning skills involving coordination of body parts, e.g. riding a bike or swimming. Also manual and practical tasks like using computer keyboards and mice will prove difficult, along with measuring accurately, slow or poor handwriting, messy presentation of work and problems with craft-work and cookery.
During the early formative years, a child suffering from dyspraxia may have difficulty learning to walk, run, and jump. Walking up and down a flight of stairs and dressing up will not be an easy task for them. Developing the ability to speak and communicate effectively is very slow for these children.
When the child attends school, mathematics and writing stories are often very difficult. Poor handwriting is among the most prevalent signs of dyspraxia. Other common symptoms include, short attention span, disorganisation, inability to tie shoelaces, tendency to avoid games in PE, and sluggishness in dressing themselves up.
During their adult years, routine tasks become very difficult for them to perform. Driving, riding bicycles, personal grooming, and certain household chores are a cause for constant struggle. Dyspraxia sufferers walk in a clumsy manner and encounter problems with sports, especially those that involve the usage of bats. They often avoid work or things that are hard for them to do.
Strategies for teaching children with dyspraxia is as follows for handwriting-using pencil grips for better control with the pencil, writing on lined paper so they can write in straight lines and also using stencils. Difficulties with dressing themselves a suggestion for this is to wear loose-fit easy on easy off clothing with Velcro fastenings for shoes. For Difficulties for walking in straight line and bumping into people, balance or wobble boards need to be provided. If a child is unable to remember or follow instructions you need to get the attention of the child before giving instructions, provide time to process the information to the child and use activities, demonstrations and pictures to get the message across. To raise and develop their Social skills you need to use techniques in order to explain the social rules and expected behaviour as a dyspraxia child finds it difficult to concentrate so a distraction free learning environment is essential.
A Dyspraxia child has been used to failure repeatedly every effort must be made to raise their self-esteem. It is imperative that you use every opportunity to praise the child in order to raise their self-esteem. This will make the child feel better about themselves they are more likely to relax and learn. This is the obvious situation to strive towards making progress in their learning. It is important to remember that they have difficulty in absorbing information during lessons so allowing them extra time, teaching in small bursts, allowing opportunities to rest is very important and You will be able to tell when each the child requires a rest. However, this will change from day to day and from child to child. Ensure that the child has understood what is being taught, repeat if needed. Check that the student is not falling behind because they cannot copy from the blackboard, Teach on a one to one level, with few distractions, when appropriate. If there is a learning support worker available, allow them to assist the child so they are taught at the same pace alongside their peers.
Therapy is a good way of alleviating dyspraxia. Speech and language therapists, occupational therapists, specialist teachers, and psychologists could be relied upon to help patients with dyspraxia. The specialists needed for therapy could vary, depending on the specific problem needs. A set of activities and exercises are given by these therapists to help patients in learning how to perform physical tasks. Reading and writing skills could also be developed with the help of therapists.Dyscalculia
Dyscalculia learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, and have problems learning number facts and procedures. Dyscalculia is like dyslexia for numbers. But unlike dyslexia, very little is known about the causes or treatment. Current thinking suggests that it is a congenital condition, caused by the abnormal functioning of a specific area of the brain. People with dyscalculia experience great difficulty with the most basic aspects of numbers.
Dyscalculia children can usually learn the sequence of counting words, but may have difficulty going back and forth, especially in twos and threes when Dyscalculia children find learning and recalling number facts difficult and they often lack confidence even when they produce the correct answer. Dyscalculia children may find it difficult to grasp that the words ten, hundred and thousand have the same relationship to each other as the numerals 10, 100 and 1000. Dyscalculia children often have difficulty when handling money or telling the time. They may also have problems with concepts such as speed or temperature. Dyscalculia children may be particularly vulnerable where teachers follow an Interactive lesson especially in a whole-class method of teaching, when asking dyscalculia children to answer simple math's questions in the class it will lead to embarrassment and frustration especially when they peers are there or other children. Dyscalculia is a special need and requires diagnosis and appropriate counseling as well as support away from whole class teaching, however, compared with dyslexia, very little research has focused on dyscalculia and how to overcome it. Consequently, there is relatively little ready made support available.
Strategies to support learners with dyscalculia is to allow extra time to complete a given task in class, encourage dyscalculia children to make use of calculators when necessary, using visual material to develop an understanding of maths concepts, make use of ICT as an aid to learning, encourage working with a partner to explain methods of working to each others in class. It is important to make the learning fun as dyscalculia children may have behaviour problems and some will resent doing extra math so it is better for teachers to be as upbeat and pleasant through activities as possible. Activities should be taught in short blocks of 10 minutes to maintain the attention of students. Parents should also be involved in the learning and encouraged to participate in the learning and use positive and encouraging language if the child finds it difficult to carry out the task. Children who have a problem with math should be taught in a multi sensory approach in which they say, hear, write and handle numbers simultaneously.
Learning difficulties can be a lifelong condition, the best treatment is to provide special or differentiated education where needed. Once a difficulty has been recognised the best approach is to teach learning skills by building on the child's abilities and strengths whilst trying to correct the weaknesses. It is important to help the child learn by enhancing attention and concentration through various teaching strategies that best suit the need of the child ensuring progression is achieved and consistent throughout the subjects.
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Even some very smart people who do really well at many other things, have trouble learning to read.
Eight-year-old Evan is one of the brightest children in his third-grade class. He has a wonderful vocabulary and knows everything there is to know about baseball—he can even tell you who played in each of the last ten World Series games and who won.
But when it comes to reading about baseball—or anything else—Evan has a lot of trouble. It takes him a long time to read each word, and even longer to read whole sentences. He often has to guess at how you say a word—and sometimes his guess is wrong. Reading out loud is especially stressful and embarrassing. His teacher recently told Evan's parents that she thinks he might have dyslexia.
Most people assume that part of being smart is being able to read well. About 100 years ago, though, doctors figured out that some people, even some very smart people who do really well at many other things, have trouble learning to read. This difficulty with reading is called dyslexia.
No one is born knowing how to read.
We all have to learn how.
Just about every person starts talking without having to learn how. When you were a baby, just being around people who were talking was enough to get you started talking, too. You didn't have go to talking school or take talking lessons. Human beings' brains are just designed to make talking happen almost automatically.
Reading is different, though. No one is born knowing how to read—we all have to learn how. When you read, your brain has to do a lot of things at once. It has to connect letters with sounds and put those sounds together in the right order.
Then it has to help you put letters, words, and paragraphs together in ways that let you read them quickly and understand what they mean. It also has to connect words and sentences with other kinds of knowledge. When you see c-a-t on a piece of paper, your brain doesn't just have to read the word "cat," it also has to make the connection that "cat" means a furry, four-legged animal that meows.
Why do I have dyslexia?
Dyslexia is sort of an invisible problem. It's not an illness like chicken pox or a cold. In school your teachers can see you working hard, but they can't see all the steps your brain has to take to make sense of the words on the worksheet she gave you to do.
Many kids with dyslexia worry that there is something wrong with their brain. That's a pretty scary thought. Thanks to recent research, though, we have lots of scientific proof that a dyslexic person's brain is normal and healthy.
When you have dyslexia, though, your brain takes longer to make some of these connections, and does it in more steps. It especially has trouble matching the letters you see on the page with the sounds those letters and combinations of letters make. And when you have trouble with that step, it makes all the other steps harder.
Dyslexia isn't rare. You might know other kids in your school who have dyslexia, too. Although dyslexia isn't contagious, sometimes several people in the same family have dyslexia. Older kids and adults can also have dyslexia.
A new way to learn.
Listening to books on tape or CD while you read along in your own book is one step to make reading better for you.
It's actually lucky that you've already found out you have dyslexia. The younger you are when you figure out that reading is tough for you, the sooner you—with the help of your teachers and parents—can find ways to learn that make it easier. Even though dyslexia isn't something you'll grow out of, there are lots of things your teachers and parents can show you to help you to read better and even to enjoy reading.
In fact, you may have already figured out some strategies all by yourself that help you when you're reading. Kids with dyslexia often learn to use other skills to help them make sense of what they're reading or studying. You might already be especially good at:
Using creative skills like these is not cheating! They're great tools that can help you as you learn to read better. Your parents, your teacher and maybe other people at your school, like a reading specialist, can take other steps to make reading better for you. Some of these steps might include:
The good news about dyslexia.
Having trouble reading does not mean that you'll have trouble with everything. In fact, most kids with dyslexia are very good at lots of other things.
One thing we know for certain about dyslexia is that this is one small area of difficulty in a sea of strengths. Having trouble with reading does not mean that you'll have trouble with everything. In fact, most kids with dyslexia are very good at lots of other things.
People with dyslexia are often very creative, and typically develop some clever skills to help them figure out words and sentences that give them trouble at first. Dyslexics often think of unexpected ways to solve a problem or tackle a challenge.
We don't fully understand whether this kind of creativity comes from the extra work dyslexics have to do to succeed at reading, or whether dyslexics are just naturally creative. What we do know, though, is that many, many people with dyslexia, even some who really struggled with reading and writing in elementary school and high school, went on to college, and work in jobs they love.
Did you ever read any of the Captain Underpants books? The author of these funny stories, Dav Pilkey, has dyslexia. So does Scott Adams, who draws and writes the popular comic strip Dilbert. Many famous performers (ever hear of John Lennon or Whoopie Goldberg?) have dyslexia. So do lots of famous doctors, business people, inventors, artists, and scientists.
Having dyslexia can sometimes make you feel frustrated or sad. With the right help, though, you can learn to read—and even to enjoy reading—and you can be anything you want to be.
This article is based on content from
Overcoming Dyslexiaby Sally Shaywitz, M.D.
Setting People Straight about Dyslexia.
Links to Check Out:
Young People's Reading List
Developed from the vision of Jim Davis, the creator of the popular cartoon cat Garfield, this website is an interactive learning tool, where kids with learning disabilities (and even those without) can express themselves and practice and enhance their skills—and have a bunch of fun doing it, too.
Definition of Terms
For better understanding of the readers, the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally:
Learning- The term is defined as acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and many involve synthesizing different types of information. In this study, it is defined as the acquiring of knowledge for the dyslexic individuals.
Adapting- The term is defined as the process whereby one fits into something for a specific use or situation. In this study, it is defined as coping up or interacting with the environment and how the dyslexic individuals interact at schools.
Experience- The term is defined as the knowledge gained by trial and practice. In this study, it is defined as the lessons gained by the dyslexic individuals in schools.
Capable- The term is defined as being receptive or competent, to be able to do something. In this study, it refers to dyslexic individuals as potential individuals in school.
Problem- The term is defined as a question proposed for solution, decision, or determination. In this study, it is defined as an experience struggled by a dyslexic individual.
Individual- This term is defined as subsisting as one indivisible entity or distinct being. In this study, it refers to the dyslexic individuals himself or herself.
Dyslexia- This term is defined as the difficulty with learning to read fluently and with accurate comprehension despite normal or above intelligence. This study defined it as the difficulty of reading, learning, and coping up with lessons in school.
Reading- This term is defined as the action or practice of someone who reads or the oral interpretation of written language. This study defined it as the way the dyslexic reads a written language.
Significance of the Study
This research entitled LEARNING AND ADAPTING FROM AN INDIVIDUAL’S EXPERIENCE OF DYSLEXIA will be proven important to the following groups or persons:
Teachers, This study would provide them knowledge with those dyslexics, how to treat them and deal with them and also know and teach them academically.
Parents, This study would help them understand dyslexics and how they interact and cope up lessons in schools.
Students, This study would provide them ideas and knowledge about dyslexics and let them be aware of the lack of self- esteem of dyslexics.
Future researchers, This study would provide them the facts needed in their future study and let them understand more about related subject of research.
Statement of the Problem
This study entitled LEARNING AND ADAPTING FROM AN INDIVIDUAL’S EXPERIENCE OF DYSLEXIA sought to identify the experiences in schools of a dyslexic student.
Specifically, it answered the following questions:
1. What is Dyslexia?
2. What are the causes and effects of Dyslexia?
3. What kind of help do dyslexics expect in school?
4. How can a dyslexic individual improve his or her self- esteem?
5. What are the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?
6. Why is it important that one understand dyslexic individual?
Dear Mrs. Manalo,
I am Darlene Mae G. Escarez of IV-Service. I am currently working with my thesis entitled LEARNING AND ADAPTING FROM AN INDIVIDUAL’S EXPERIENCE OF DYSLEXIA. This study aims to identify the experiences in schools of a dyslexic student.
In connection with thesis, I ask for your permission to allow me to conduct a simple survey among selected students of your class.
Rest assured that all the answers will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Attached with this is the copy of the survey questionnaire.
I am looking forward to your positive response.
Please sign up to read full document.
with this is you can study the individual in detail. The weakness is the results are not applicable to large enough categories. Part III: Ethics in Research Describe two ethical issues related to research. Why is informed consent necessary for ethical research? Deception is one big ethical issue with research. How a participant may feel about the researchers deceiving them is an ethical issue. Research data can be manipulated by the researchers, with a designed setting the researchers can pull the participants closer to the results they are wanting to report. Informed consent is necessary for ethical research because the participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation. Participants must be guarded from and aware of any risk that may be associated to the study. Part IV: The Brain and Mind Identify three major structures of the brain and their respective functions in the human body. 1. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, it also controls temporal and spatial relationships. It communicates emotion and nonverbal communication. 2. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body. It also has control of our speech and understanding of speech. 3. The cerebellum controls our balance, posture, respiratory, and cardiac functions.
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Express an understanding of the characteristics of a typical pupil/student with learning difficulties and outline suitable strategies for optimising their learning . Introduction According to the Special Education Review Committee report, the term special education needs refers to pupils “… whose disabilities and/or circumstances prevent or hinder them from benefiting adequately from the education which is normally provided … or for whom the education which is generally provided in the ordinary classroom is not sufficiently challenging…”(NCCA, 1999, p. 6). As the S.E.R.C. report outlines, the term itself is not easily defined. It incorporates a broad spectrum of educational needs. The special need or learning difficulty I will be discussing in this essay is Dylexia. I am a third class teacher in an all girls school. I have taught a diagnosed dylexic student only once to date and have a student this year who has been referred for assessment, who is showing dylexic tendencies. Dylexia can and often does present many challenges to schools and class teachers when it comes to providing that child with the appropriate education that they are entitled to. One of the main challenges that schools and class teachers face, when dealing with special needs pupils, is the development of a differentiated curriculum for the student. As outlined in the Primary School curriculum, “All children have a right of.
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