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Ray Bradbury: Short Stories - The Exiles - Summary and Analysis

Ray Bradbury: Short Stories Summary and Analysis of "The Exiles"

The story begins with a scene the three witches from Macbeth brewing a potion and staring into a crystal, which reveals another scene that takes place on a rocket ship. Originating from Earth, the men on the rocket ship are panicking because they have recently experienced nightmares, confusing illnesses, and unexpected death. They are destined for Mars, and they are worried that these events may be warnings from Martians not to arrive.

As the crewmembers talk, it becomes clear that the Earth they are leaving has banned many books, some of which are considered some of the best authors of all time. The rocket ship has the last edition of many of these works, and their goal is to burn the books upon their arrival at Mars. Once they have burned the books, there will be no remaining evidence that these authors ever existed.

The story then leaves the rocket ship and returns to the witches, where they finish brewing their potion. It becomes clear that they themselves are on Mars, and they only have one hour until the rocket ship arrives. They fear that the Earth people will drastically change Mars and leave it in ruins, just as they have done to Earth. It is not only the witches who inhabit Mars - it is also a group of literary exiles, such as Edgar Allen Poe. William Shakespeare, and Charles Dickens. They have sought refuge on Mars after being banned on Earth.

These established and famous writers suspect that the rocket ship has come to destroy their literary heritage once and for all, which is exactly what the crew members intend to do. They suggest moving themselves somewhere else if the Earth crew causes trouble, but they must preserve their writings in order to continue to exist. To do this, they prepare Mars for a battle with the rocket ship.

While they may not be as strong as them, they have many different tricks and traps to defeat their enemy. They know that they must dedicate all of their forces to stopping the rocket from burning them. While they are strategizing, the rocket lands, and the crew steps out. Without hesitation, they burn the last remaining books and hear screams. They do not know where the screams have originated from, and they explore the area to look for clues that will help them learn more.

The screams were those of the authors, who were in the midst of planning their defense. The exiled authors have ceased to exist, and their work will soon be forgotten.

The exiled authors mentioned in the story are some of the best authors of all time, and many of them were personal inspirations to Bradbury. Most of the writers were considered fantasy writers, a fact which expresses Bradbury's belief that fantasy writers experienced the most intense censorship and persecution for their work. This could reflect some of Bradbury's own experiences with publishing his work.

Once again, the theme of censorship is central to this story. It resembles "The Flying Machine," because the rocket ship crew wants not only to censor the works of the great writers, but also to eradicate them. There is no space for them to be silent - they must be completely eliminated. It is a very extreme version of censorship, and it is immediately distasteful.

It is especially hard to process because there is little explanation as to why their thoughts are so dangerous and disruptive in the Earth society. While it is frustrating in the story, it is indicative of the everyday practice of censorship. Those who censor rarely give the reasoning behind why they have done so, and if they do, it is often not a satisfactory answer. The story gives a good warning to us to consider what we accept and what we discard - these writers are considered some of the best writers in the English language, yet this crew eliminated them. What other famous works have we rejected, or what potential breathtaking works have we prevented because of societal norms?

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Реферат: Science Lab Analysis Essay Research Paper Lab

Science Lab Analysis Essay, Research Paper

Lab Reflection and Analysis

Rockets date back to the early 1200, where they were used in China. Warlords would experiment with gunpowder and arrows. The first rockets were actually made by they Chinese, they were 12 arrows placed in a funnel like basket and the end was lit. This primitive invention was named Rocket Propelled Fire arrows (David Harding, 1980). Although the real rocketry started in about 1250 and 100 years later RPGs (Rocket Propelled Grenades) were introduced to the world by Europe and they Arabs (David Harding, 1980)

Modern rockets are used for many things like weapons, space travel, recreation, experiments, and many other things. In the way of rockets used as weapons, there are many types. There are air defense missiles, SAMs (Surface to Air Missiles), ballistic missiles, air to land missiles, air to air missiles, and many other types. As you see there is almost a missile for everything.

One of the newest and most effective missiles that we have is the Tomahawk Cruse missile. Cruise missiles are designed to fly at extremely low altitudes at high subsonic speeds, and are piloted over an evasive route by several mission guidance systems. The name of the main guidance system is TERCOM (Terrain Contour Matching), this guidance system is so effective that a cruise missile can hit it s designated target within 6 feet and can be launched from extremely long ranges (The United States Navy Fact Files, 1998-200).

In terms of recreation model rockets are what people use. Model rockets generally use solid fuel, such as Estes rocket engines etc. Model rocketry is actually a big hobby for some people. It involves building the rocket, this means taking time and carefully preparing all of the parts of the rocket to be put together. Once the rocket is successfully built you must put in an engine and an igniter. The engine sizes run as followed: A half stage, A full stage, B half stage, B full stage, C half stage, C full stage, D half stage, D full stage, E half stage, and E full stage. Once you have the correct engine and the rocket is built, you are ready for launch! That s about it in the way of model rocketry.

Rockets that are used in space launches are the most important thing in the launch. Rockets can boost spacecrafts, satellites, and parts of space stations into space (Toney Osman, 1983). Rocket boosters launch mostly all satellites. They sputnik satellite (the first satellite in space) was launched by an enormous rocket into space. John Glens maiden voyage into space was kicked of by an extremely large rocket compared to the Friendship 7 (John Glens actual space craft that circled the earth 3 times) (Toney Osman, 1983)

Rockets are very complex machines, that s why people refer to rocket scientists as extremely smart people. Rocket scientists have to compute complex equations and calculations. They have to figure out how to make it land where they want it to, how to make it go where they want it to go, and many other things. In Florida at the NASA headquarters and the Kennedy Space Museum, workers spend hours and hours preparing space shuttles and their engines for launch. Everything has to be perfect or a fatal accident can occur. Like in 1983 when the Challenger 1 exploded because if a faulty O-ring. Since that there has never been a crash or disaster because of faulty installation or wiring.

B. Experimental Design

Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to find out if the shape of a rocket and the shape of its fins effect its flight time.

Hypothesis: If the rocket has a wider body then the rocket will fly longer and if the fins are larger I think the rocket will fly longer.

10 Estes rockets and necessary parts in the kits

20 Estes C-stage engines and 20 igniters

Balsa wood (or card board)

Procedure: First you will need to buy 10 Estes rocket kits. Then you will connect 4 6-in. fins to the 1st rocket and build it as the directions say. then for the second rocket you will put 4 fins about 4 and one half inches long onto the body and follow the necessary building directions. For the third rocket you will have to cut the body down to 8 inches in length. Then you need to put on the regular size fins that come with the kit. For the fourth rocket you will have to attach 2 small cardboard tubes (about 2 cm in diameter and about 6 inches in length) to the sides of the rocket and build the rest of the rocket according to the directions. For the 5th and final rocket you will need to connect 2 rocket bodies together (one on top of the other). Then put 4 fins on the bottom of the rocket(the size that came in the kit) and 4 on the place where you joined the 2 rockets together. Then follow the rest of the directions that came with the kit. Then after all the rockets are constructed you need to launch them on the launch pad. As soon as they are launched you need to start the stopwatch. When the rocket hits the ground you need to stop the stopwatch. Then record your data.

Independent Variable: The flight time of the 5 rockets

# of Trials: 2 launches for each rocket

Dependant Variable: Flight time in seconds from launch until the rocket hits the ground.

Constants: Same parachute design, same rocket engines,

Also here is a data table I could use to collect data.

Launch # 1 Launch # 2

Rocket 1 Flight time in second

C. Reflective Analysis

The original Bottle Rocket lab was very interesting for me. I liked it so much because it was a hands on experiment. The lab was very interesting in the way that it grabbed my attention and kept it. Once I decided to do my Laboratory Reflection and Analysis on this lab I had to get lots of background on rockets and the way that they fly. I used many sources to find information, including Internet, library, talking to people, and personal knowledge. It wasn t very hard for me to find information on rockets. It is a pretty wide spread topic, and lots of people are interested in rockets. On the Internet I found lots and lots of information on model rockets, but it was hard to find info on real rockets. In the library it was the exact opposite, I found lots of information on real rockets and very little on model rockets. I decided to design my experiment around the background that I collected. I had to think a while but I finally came up with what I thought was an original and very good experiment.

This experiment could help current issues in rocket engineering in many ways. The data from this lab could show if maybe some other designs for rockets could be more useful. Or maybe one of my rockets that I designed uses less fuel to gain more altitude, therefore saving the rocket companies millions of dollars.

I think that this experiment would be very good for a science fair project. This would be a project that I could get all the materials to and all of the supplies that I would need to complete this experiment. This would be allot of fun for me to conduct also. Therefore I think that this experiment has a very high chance of being used as a science fair project.

Harding, David, 1980, Weapons, New York:

United States Navy Fact Files, 1998-2000, http://ask.com/main/FinalAnswer.asp?qCategory=EDU%5F&Link=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Emilitarydataresource%2Ecom%2Fus%5Fsys%5Fmissles%2Ehtm&Title=Rocket%2C+Missles%2C+%26+Torpedoes&Answers=1&ajparam_list1=9&ajparam_fillers=%7C9%5B645%5D%7C&ajparam_qid=6185&site_name=Je, may 17, 2000

Osman, 1983, Space History, New York: St. Martins Press

Mighty Hard Road Analysis - Essay

Mighty Hard Road Mighty Hard Road Analysis - Essay

(Critical Edition of Young Adult Fiction)

The preface to Mighty Hard Road includes an excerpt from a composition written by a young boy, the son of a farm worker. The boy writes:Cesar Chávez is our leader. When he was a small boy he had to get out of school to work in the fields with his parents. Ever since then he dreamed of making a big strike so that parents could get more for working and the children of farm workers wouldn’t have to miss school like he did.

These words emphasize the book’s main theme and objectives. As a Hispanic American, Chávez endured hatred and prejudice. As a migrant worker, he lived in poverty, knew hunger, and was not able to obtain a formal education. The authors suggest, however, that Chávez possessed many characteristics, such as strong values, courage, humility, a charismatic personality, and determination, that made it possible for him to overcome many barriers.

Chávez’s values had a strong influence on the character of the farm workers’ movement. Terzian and Cramer suggest that Chávez was profoundly influenced by works advocating nonviolence, such as the autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi and Christian literature. Chávez was an admirer of Martin Luther King, Jr. and some of the strategies used by the farm workers were borrowed from the Civil Rights movement. To demonstrate his commitment to nonviolence, Chávez fasted as a form of protest against the intransigence of growers.

While the primary focus of the book is on Chávez and the farm workers’ movement, young readers will gain a sense of some of the major issues and events that occurred.

(The entire section is 652 words.)

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Suggested Reading - Atomic Rockets


Fundamentals of Astrodynamics . Bate, Roger R, Dover, 1971, ISBN: 0486600610. This has more than you probably need to know about orbital mechanics, and is rough going if you are weak in calculus. But it is certainly comprehensive. Textbook quality book. If you want a book that is easier to read (but much more expensive) try Introduction to Space FlightRealities of Space Travel: Selected Papers of the British Interplanetary Society Carter J. L. ed. McGraw-Hill, 1957. A bit dated, but still contains hard data on orbital optimization, atomic spacecraft propulsion, life support considerations, and more. Textbook quality book.Interplanetary Flight An Introduction to Astronautics Clarke, Sir Arthur C. L. Harper & Brothers, Publishers 1951. This covers most of the issues of space flight, easy to read, but with many of the vital equations listed in the back.Nuclear Propulsion for Space Corliss, William R, Oak Ridge Atomic Energy Commission 1969 Propulsion Systems for Space Flight Corliss, William R, McGraw Hill, 1960. A little dated, but it has tons and tons of useful equations. It does cover most propulsion systems, and has some data on spacecraft power systems. Textbook quality book.Project Orion: the true story of the atomic spaceship Dyson, George, Henry Hoult and Company, 2002. An in-depth look at the history of old Boom-boom, the nuclear bomb powered rocket. It has interesting details as to performance, and diagrams which are useful for other spacecraft designs.

HIGH Frontier Eklund, Philip, Sierra Madre Games. A cardboard and paper wargame with exceedingly accurate spacecraft propulsion information and a clever way to calculate the delta-V required for various mission in the Solar system. Do not miss the first expansion pack (more details here. here. here. and here )Spaceship Handbook Hagerty, Jack & Rogers, Jon C. ARA Press, 2001, ISBN 0-9707604-0-X. The first part has an entertaining survey of spacecraft from the fictional Tom Corbett TV series to actual early NASA designs, along with incredibly precise blue-prints. But the technical appendix on Atomic Powered spacecraft is worth the price of the book all by itself. The appendix gives the essential propulsion equations, and does a survey of propulsion systems available and on the drawing boards, with hard figures. The end of the appendix contains an extensive table of deltaV requirements for all mission types for the planets and major moons of the solar system. Textbook quality book.The Saucer Fleet Hagerty, Jack & Rogers, Jon C. Apogee Books, 2008, ISBN 978-1894959-70-4. This is a companion volume for Spaceship Handbook. covering flying saucers from movies and TV. It also contains incredibly precise blue-prints, plus engineer notes on discrepancies between the ship exteriors and the interior sets. The sociological impact of the various movies is discussed, along with speculations on possible scientific principles involved. Textbook quality book.Introduction to Space Flight Hale, Francis, Pearson Education, 1998, ISBN 0134819128 This is a massive textbook, about one notch below the SMAD. Only $90 instead of $200, it can be found used for about $60. I have been told that it is far easier to read than Fundamentals of Astrodynamics and that it covers gravitational assist trajectories that Astrodynamics does not. However, Astrodynamics is only $16.BEAM WEAPONS The Next Arms Race . Hecht, Jeff, iUniverse Incorporated, 2000, ISBN 0595094503 A good overview of the state of the (unclassified) art in the field of laser and particle beam weapons in 1984. Lots of photos and diagrams, and even a few equations. There is also some interesting histories of various US Defense Department projects.Space Propulsion Analysis and Design Humble, Ronald W. Henry, Gary N. Larson, Wiley J. McGraw Hill, 1995, ISBN 0-07-031320-2. This book has it all. Extensive up to date information of chemical, nuclear, and electric propulsion systems, with details and equations to do system analysis and optimization. If you can only get one book, you won't go far wrong if you get this one. Textbook quality book.

A Heat Transfer Textbook . Lienhard, John H. A textbook on thermodynamics for engineers, may be downloaded for free.The Starflight Handbook : a pioneer's guide to interstellar travel Mallove,Eugene, & Gregory Matloff, Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, John, 1989, ISBN: 0471619124. The focus here is on interstellar instead of interplanetary propulsion, but it still has important hard data and the obligatory vital equations.The Dream Machines : An Illustrated History of the Spaceship in Art, Science and Literature Miller, Ron, Krieger Publishing Company, 1992, ISBN: 0894640399. This is the most comprehensive history of spacecraft design concepts published to date. Tons of illustrations. Pricy, though.Space Warfare and Strategic Defense Pahl, David, Bison Books Corp, 1987, ISBN 0-671-08925-0. Contains information about space weapons in general and the Strategic Defense Initiative in specific.The Science of Aliens Pickover, Clifford, Basic Books, 1999, ISBN 0465073158. Written by an actual live scientist, this book goes into scientific detail about what aliens might be like. Very readable.How Do You Go to the Bathroom in Space? Pogue, William R. Tor Books, 1991. Details on what it is like to live and work in space.A Step Farther Out Pournelle, Jerry, ACE, 1980, ISBN:0-441-78585-9. This is a collection of science essays, but it includes very lucid descriptions of the problems of space flight, and has vital equations.Rocket to the Moon LIFE magazine January 17, 1949 The article that provided the look for the space suits and space craft for the Tom Corbett TV series and novels.

The Millennial Project: Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps Savage, Marshall T. Little, Brown, & Co. 1994, ISBN 0-316-77163-5. A tour de force book, it contains important data about life support and space colonization.Aliens and Alien Societies Schmidt, Stanley, Writer's Digest Books, 1995, ISBN 0-89879-706-3. The focus is on science fiction writer desiring some scientific accuracy in their space aliens. Very readable but loaded with great information.Space Mission Analysis and Design . Wertz, James R. and Larson, Wiley J. Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999, ISBN 0792359011. Known as SMAD in the astronautics trade, this is the book the pros use. The drawback is that the book over $200. The advantage is that if it isn't in this book, it doesn't matter. It really does have it all. Textbook quality book.

The list is organized alphabetically by the author's (or authors') last name where possible.

"Retreat to the Stars" Brackett, Leigh, 1941. Collected in ADVENTURES IN TOMORROW. Rebels escape from a totalitarian regime into a secret asteroid stronghold, for a desperate bid for freedom.Islands in the Sky Clarke, Sir Arthur C. Signet New York 1987. Details daily life in a space station. Very similar to Heinlein's Space CadetThe Other Side of the Sky Clarke, Sir Arthur C. Signet New York 1987. Details the building of the first space station and the first expedition to the Moon.Passage at Arms Cook, Glen, Popular Library/Questar, 1985, ISBN: 0445200065.Shows life on a military starship. It is sort of like Das Boat in outer space.Contraband Rocket Correy, Lee (alias of G. Harry Stine), Ace Double D-146, 1955. Has fascinating details about refurbishing an obsolete atomic rocket. And what it is like to use it to travel to the Moon, while it gradually falls apart around you.Space Doctor Correy, Lee (alias of G. Harry Stine), 1985. The adventures of the first microgravity space doctor in a project to build the first orbital solar power satellite. Contains a good description of what it is like to wait out a solar storm in a station's radiation storm cellar."Habit" del Rey, Lester, 1939, Collected in EARLY DEL REY. A short story about a rocket race. Inspiration for the Meteoris ."Lunar Landing" del Rey, Lester, 1942, Collected in EARLY DEL REY. A short story about the second landing on the Moon with an atomic rocket.Moon of Mutiny del Rey, Lester, Ballantine 1961. A boy washed out from the Space Academy is assigned to fly an emergency mission to the Moon.Rocket Jockey del Rey, Lester, Ballantine 1952. An extended novel about a rocket race.

"The Cold Equations" Godwin, Tom, 1954. Collected in THE SCIENCE FICTION HALL OF FAME, VOLUME I. This story caused an uproar when it first came out. As Dr. Feynman observed about the Challenger disaster, "Nature cannot be fooled." If the equations say that your spacecraft does not have enough fuel, they don't mean "maybe."Farmer in the Sky Heinlein, Robert, Ballantine, 1950. The adventures of a young immigrant to a terraformed Ganymede. The shipboard sequences are of interest.Have Space Suit, Will Travel Heinlein, Robert, Ace 1958. The novel goes into some details about the equipment and features of a standard space suit."Misfit" Heinlein, Robert, 1939. Collected in THE GREAT SF STORIES 1 and THE PAST THROUGH TOMORROW. Good info on shipboard life and working in free fall."Ordeal in Space" Heinlein, Robert, 1948, Collected in THE GREEN HILLS OF EARTH and THE PAST THROUGH TOMORROW. Describes the trials and tribulations of a spaceman on the outside of a rotating spacecraft.Podkayne of Mars Heinlein, Robert, 1963. Has a good description of what it is like to wait out a solar storm in the radiation storm cellar of a passenger liner spacecraft.Rocket Ship Galileo Heinlein, Robert, Ballantine, 1977. A junior rocket club builds the first moon rocket with help from an atomic scientist. Please, give it a chance, it is much better than it sounds."Sky Lift" Heinlein, Robert, 1953, Collected in THE MENACE FROM EARTH. A story about an emergency run to Pluto. Nine days at three point five Gees. Ouch.Space Cadet Heinlein, Robert, Ace 1948. Details the training of a cadet in the Space Navy, the technical details are accurate, as are most Heinlein novels."Space Jockey" Heinlein, Robert, 1947, Collected in THE GREEN HILLS OF EARTH and THE PAST THROUGH TOMORROW. An account of the daily life of a rocket pilot."The Green Hills of Earth" Heinlein, Robert, 1947, Collected in THE GREEN HILLS OF EARTH and THE PAST THROUGH TOMORROW. Contains fascinating details about working in the engine room of an atomic rocket.The Rolling Stones Heinlein, Robert, Ace 1952. A brilliant but eccentric family seeks their fortune among the rock rats in the Asteroid belt. Has tons of detail about atomic rockets: propulsion, life support, navigation, and more. Be sure to check out Steven Ouellette's marvelous Orbiter add-on that emulates the Rolling Stone.

Bullard of the Space Patrol Jameson, Malcolm, The World Publishing Company, 1951. The adventures of John Bullard as he rises through the ranks of the Space Patrol.The Humanist Inheritance Lineberger, Matthew. 2006. A hard science fiction story that was inspired by the Atomic Rocket website. The creation of good stuff like this is why I made this site in the first place. Check it out!"The Mauki Chant" Meyer, J. A. Astounding magazine, June 1951. An asteroid war short story. The background was borrowed by Alan E. Nourse for his Raiders From the Rings.Star Rangers (aka The Last Planet) Norton, Andre, Fawcett Crest 1953. Also collected in the omnibus volume Star Soldiers. Adventures of the Patrol during the decline and fall of the Galactic Empire. This book should be made into a movie. The ending is haunting yet uplifting.The Stars Are Ours! Norton, Andre, Ace 1963. Fleeing persecution from a fundamentalist Luddite regime, practioners of the outlawed art called "Science" attempt to build a spaceship to escape to the stars.Raiders From the Rings Nourse, Alan E. Pyramid Books 1963. An asteroid war novel. Interesting background, and a strong "sense of wonder."Exiles to Glory Pournelle, Jerry, Ace, 1978. A semi-sequel to High Justice. An outcast from a decadent Earth finds opportunity in the asteroid colonies.High Justice Pournelle, Jerry, Pocket Books, 1977. The story of a visionary corporation attempting to expand into space despite sabotage from decadent governments. Includes the story "Tinker", with a cameo appearance by the Pilgrim Observer in the role of the Boostship Agamemnon.

The Tom Corbett: Space Cadet series Rockwell, Cary, Grosset & Dunlap.
  1. STAND BY FOR MARS (1952)
  4. SPACE PIONEERS (1954)
  5. REVOLT ON VENUS (1954)
  8. ROBOT ROCKET (1955)
Galactic Patrol Smith, E.E. "Doc", Pyramid Books 1937. The first book in the classic "Lensman" series. If you haven't read them yet, you owe it to yourself to get copies. The writing might be stilted, but whenever you encounter a fascinating gadget in science fiction, nine times out of ten Doc Smith invented it back in the 1930's. This includes tractor beams, FTL travel, force fields, and virtual reality.Silent Galaxy Tedford, William, Leisure Books, 1981.Exciting space combat, but with plenty of hard science. All of Tedford's four novels are worth reading.The Outcasts of Heaven's Belt Vinge, Joan. Collected in Heaven Chronicles. Warner Books, 1991. Arguably the best asteroid civilization novel ever written.Lifeboat AKA Dark Inferno White, James, Ballantine, 1972. A facinating story of a nuclear thermal rocket undergoing a disaster large enough to force evacuation in lifeboats. Lots of interesting technical details.Luna Whited, Garon. Xlibris, 2007. A scientifically accurate saga of the crew of a lunar colony after all human beings on Terra are exterminated by a global thermonuclear war. Contains many details of interest to budding young spacecraft designers. Recommended.The Legion of Space Williamson, Jack, Pyramid, 1951. Also collected in the omnibus volume Three From the Legion. The stirring saga of the noble heroes of the Legion of Space.

Attack Vector: Tactical(Boardgame) Burnside, Ken; Ad Astra Games 2002 Get this game. Play a few games and you have first hand knowledge of deep space maneuvers and combat. In three dimensions, no less. The clever play aids do all the scary math for you, and keep track of the three dimensional firing arcs. Unbelievably the game is relatively simple to play. The movement is based on Newtonian physics, and both propulsion system plus weapon systems are scientifically accurate.GURPS Space, fourth edition(RPG) Zeigler, Jon F. and Cambias, James L. ; Steve Jackson Games, Incorporated, 2006, ISBN 1-55634-245-4. Contains valuable information for anybody designing a scienc fiction universe. Astronomy, rocketry, biology, technology, there is a lot of meat here. This is a great book to quickly get an author up to speed on the science behind science fiction.GURPS Traveller: Far Trader(RPG) Daniels, Steve, MacLean, Daniels, Thrash, Christopher; Steve Jackson Games, Incorporated, 2003, ISBN 1-55634-373-6. Written with help from a real live economist, this allows one to model interplanetary and interstellar trade with equations and everythingGURPS Traveller: Starships(RPG) Bont, Thomas L. Prior, Robert, Thrash, Christopher; Steve Jackson Games, Incorporated, 2003, ISBN: 1556344759. Yes, this is a supplement for a role-playing game, but it has enough scientific meat to be worth looking over.High Frontier Eklund, Philip, Sierra Madre Games. A cardboard and paper wargame with exceedingly accurate spacecraft propulsion information and a clever way to calculate the delta-V required for various mission in the Solar system. Do not miss the expansion pack (more details here. here. here. and here )Independence War(Computer game: Windows) Particle Systems 1998 Out of print.This game really gives you an education in both Newtonian physics and thinking in three dimensions. The Heads-Up display is quite functional, and will spark your own ideas. Science-fantasy would have you believe that spacecraft maneuver like World War II fighter planes. Independence War pounds reality into your head: spacecraft maneuver like an overloaded 18-wheeler on a road covered in black ice.Independence War II: Edge of Chaos(Computer game: Windows) Particle Systems 2002 A sequel to Independence War, with more features and a less scripted plot-line.

Orbiter(Computer game: Windows)Windows software that accurately simulates spacefight through the solar system. There is a thriving community who are producing plug-ins and add-ons for Orbiter. Steven Ouellette has created an add-on that duplicates the Rolling Stone from the Heinlein novel of the same name.Rocket Flight(Boardgame) Eklund, Philip M.; Sierra Madre Games Co. 1995 Out of print.This game simulates the commercial developement of the Solar system. The list of propulsion systems is quite accurate. Most interestingly is how the map is gridded in deltaV increments instead of distance. The game is worth finding for the propulsion system list alone, the economic development model is also valuable. The game is out of print, but the designer has made an updated version called High Frontier .Ships of the Jovian Confederation, Vol. 2(RPG) Boulle, Philippe; Dream Pod 9 1992, ISBN 1-896776-45-0. A refererence book that contains stunningly scientifically accurate spacecraft designs.Spaceship Zero RPG(RPG) Atkinson, Toren and Banks, Warren; Green Ronin Publishing 2002, ISBN 0971438099. A fabulous role-playing game based on the 1970s German TV series of the same name. This really captures the flavor of the 1950's rocket TV shows, with pulpy aliens and all. The designer admits to consulting with an astronautical engineer for help with the technical aspects. And one of their players used information from the Atomic Rocket website to calculate rocket performance for their campaign.Star Fist(Boardgame) Jackson, Steve; Steve Jackson Games (1991) Out of print.This game is based on the Triplanetary system, and includes an innovative rule for "tractor beams".Star Hero(RPG) Cambias, James L. ; Hero Games, Incorporated, ISBN 1-58366-007-0. Another valuable sourcebook for anybody designing a science fiction universe. From stellar dynamics to types of interstellar governments, this book belongs on the shelf of serious SF authors. This is also a great book to quickly get an author up to speed on the science behind science fiction.Triplanetary(Boardgame) Harshman, John and Miller, Marc W.; GDW (Game Designers Workshop) 1973 Out of print.Playing this game will really give one an intuitive feel for Newtonian physics. The game is long out of print, but one can find the map and rulebook here and images of the counter here .Voidstriker(Boardgame) Oines, Charles ; Irrational Designs 2006 Much like Triplanetary, playing this game will really give one an intuitive feel for Newtonian physics. The difference is that Voidstriker is still in print, and much more fun to play. It includes rules for reaction mass and an innovative action point system. Do check out the forum .

A4/V2 Design and Tech DataBlueprints for the German WWII V2 rocket. The outline of most space opera rockets in the 1950's is based on the V2.AIAA Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion SystemsThis is a PDF file containing technical information about designing spacecraft in general and fusion propulsion spacecraft in particular. The list of references is valuable as well.Alternate View columns: SpacedrivesArchive of science fact columns by physicist John Cramer.Atomic Fire, Electric Glow: Advanced PropulsionA list of valuable extracts on the topic of advanced propulsion systems. From the Romance to Reality website.Attack Vector: TacticalKen Burnside's paper and cardboard wargame with real 3-D vector movement, nuclear powered space warships, and all the scientific accuracy you can handle. Play this one and you'll get a real feel for the problems of interplanetary combat.Basics of Space FlightAn excellent overview by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.Blue Max StudiosThis is the blog of an artist and role-playing-game designer who has applied hard science to his works (He also admires this website, which makes me which is one of the things that makes it all worthwhile). He also has a line of spacecraft deckplans for RPGs which are well worth the price. Do check them out.BotecA freeware Hohmann orbit calculator written in in Python by Erik Max Francis. /dd>Computing Planetary PositionsChristopher Thrash's Traveller AnalysisDeep technical articles analyzing various aspects of the Traveller RPG.Collector's ShowcaseThis site is full of images from the covers of SF pulp magazines and early 1950's SF novels. Site is in French, but it is fairly obvious how to navigate.Curmudgeon Egression: the web page of Coridon HenshawContains a small but growing collection of engineering resources for people interested in BOTE science fiction engineering.

David Robinson's amazing Spacecraft ArtCG images of exceedingly realisic and scientifically accurate spacecraft. All the more amazing is that he does his work with Bryce instead of more sophisticated software. He is the master of the boolean operator.Delta 7 StudiosOnline catalog where one can purchase paper model kits for Tom Corbett's Polaris, von Braun Saturn Shuttle, 1936 Flash Gordon ship, a ray gun, and more.Deep ColdSecrets of the Cold War in Space: 1959-1969. A fascinating "what-if" future of space exploration with professional quality computer graphics.Directed Energy Missile Defense in Space1984 report on orbital laser and particle beam defense. Lots of hard information.Electromagnetic Pulse Shockwaves as a result of Nuclear Pulse PropulsionA study of EMP and fallout damage caused by an Orion drive spacecraft. Includes a simulation program and some Orion diagrams.Encyclopedia AstronauticaThis huge site is the best reference source of historical spacecraft, bar none.The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and SpaceflightA valuable reference for all questions on the science of space.Fabio Femino's Vintage Science Fiction Art The site is in Italian, but it has a link to a Babelfish translation. It has lots of images from Chesley Bonestell, Robert McCall, and Frank R. Paul.Flaming Pear Software If you are using Adobe Photoshop, Paintshop Pro, or other Photoshop plug-in compatible program to make pictures of the Polaris, Flaming Pear has plug-ins that will instantly make stunning star backgrounds (with nebulas), suns. and alien planets that will knock your socks off. Check out this example. These three are bundled for the bargain price of $40. People who play the Traveller role playing game will be interested in the plug-in Flexify. It can take a map in equirectangular format and turn it into a Traveller-style icomap. And it just so happens that the alien planet plug-in can output in equirectangular format.Fueling Interplanetary TravelOverview of propulsion systems.Fundamentals of Orbital Mechanics

Galaxy MapProbably the most comprehensive and accurate map of the galaxy anywhere.Generic Starship Builder SpreadsheetClick on "Worksheets" in sidebar. Spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel, Star Office, and Open Office format for designing spacecraft.Grand Central RocketA nostalgic site devoted to the amazing space technology of old movies and TV shows, when the spaceships were not grace-less Apollo-style barrels, but sleek, needle-nosed and swept-winged silver rocketships.The Grand List of Overused Science Fiction ClichésThis is a list of certain SF story elements that pop up over and over again. Useful if one is intentionally trying to incorporate old SF troupes into your work.Hard SF 3D GroupThe place to go if you are interested in creating photorealistic images of your atomic rockets on your computer with 3-D rendering software. Great if you are trying to learn, want to show off your work, or are looking for an artist to contract for your project. Be sure to check out Rachel Kronick's rendered starships .How to Build a Laser Death RayLuke Campbell tells you all the technical details of laser weapons. This site is a work in progress but the existing information is solid gold.How to compute planetary positionsStep by step.Implemented Equations from So You Wanna Build a Rocket?Eric Rozier has created on-line calculators for some of the equations on this website.INNOVARI - The Fantastic Art of Luca OleastriMr. Oleastri is a 3D computer artist with, among other things, a nice selection of 1950's vintage space rockets. He also sells 3D meshes of said rockets at reasonable prices.Island One Advance Propusion ConceptsOverview of about every single propulsion system ever proposed.

Kenneth Gatland Memory MyPage.RuInteresting Russian language blog with vintage illustrations from the science encyclopedias of Kenneth Gatland.Lunar ModelsThey offer a wide selection of resin and vacuform models of classic SF spaceships from TV and movies. They have a fine section of atomic rockets. Expensive, but worth it.Man Conquers SpaceDavid Sander's project to make a pseudo-documentary movie about the history of space flight, if things had happened as predicted by Colliers. Absolutely brilliant, the trailer will take your breath away. And if you dreamed about those ferry rockets when you were a child in the mid 1960's, the trailer may bring a wistful tear to your eye. This movie has been under discussion on sci.space.historyMan-Systems Integration StandardsThis NASA document is a must-read for all manned spacecraft designers. It covers almost everything, from hatch design to effects of radiation to atmospheric pressure to toilet human factors. Check it out.Mars AcademyThis great site will quickly get you up to speed on various aspects of interplanetary flight. It will give you enough knowledge to ground you, so you can comprehend more advanced material.The MeteorisA stunning scratch-built plastic model of an atomic rocket by master model-makerMichael 'Woozle' McGuire. This model was one of the winners in the "Space Racer" contest at Starship Modeler. It was inspired by Lester del Rey's short story "Habit" .
MICHAEL from FOOTFALL by Larry Niven & Jerry PournelleThe Michael is an Orion drive battleship featured in the novel Footfall. Aldo Spadoni. president of Aerospace Imagineering. made a design based on information from the book. The design has been blessed by Niven and Pournelle.NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts: Studies(hit the "sort by Topic" button) Advanced space flight technologies.NASA Space Design GuidelinesNASA documents on various spacecraft topics.NEEP CoursesMaterials from a University of Wisconsin course on space exploitation. Contains information on orbits, propulsion, economics, and the space environment.NuclearSpace.comThe pro-nuclear space movement homesite.

Opening the Next FrontierA detailed explanation of a hypothetical heavy-lift cargo spacecraft, the "liberty ship". This sucker uses a potent Nuclear Lightbulb style nuclear thermal propulsion unit, and can boost an incredible two million pounds of payload.Orion's ArmA huge project to create a hard-science fictional history of the next ten thousand years.Physics of rocket systems with separated energy and propellantHow to calculate the optimum exhaust velocity for a given mission.Project PlutoA nightmare atomic-powered cruise missile project that mercifully got cancelled back in the 1960'sProject Rho ProductionsA shameless plug for my Cafe Press store where you can purchase my starship related art.Project Sword Toys Moonbase CentralA blog with marvelous images of vintage 1960's outer space toysRealistic Engines for Tactical Space CombatLucid description on how to calculate engine performance.rec.arts.sf.science Usenet NewsgroupThis newsgroup is for putting hard science into science fiction. Posting a technical question there will generally produce plenty of answers. Much of this website has been cribbed from rec.arts.sf.written.Retro SpaceThe site is devoted to 1950's style spacecraft and alternate future histories.The Rim Worlds ConcordanceAn on-line concordance devoted to the "Commodore Grimes" novels of A. Bertram Chandler. Of special interest is the entry on Ship Details. with notes on the interior details of various starships.Roaring RocketsDocuments the Tom Corbett TV show, and other 1950's vintage outer space programs.The Rocket CompanyA fascinating fictionalized account of a privately developed surface to orbit spacecraft. It includes lots of hard science and equations.Rocketpunk ManifestoRick Robinson has a blog that is trying to revive the old Heinlein-esque atomic rocket style science fiction. He calls it "Rocket-punk." Check it out and contribute to the conversation.Rocketship X-M Paper ModelFree paper model kit of the rocket from the movie with the same name.Rogers Rocketships, Where Dreams LiveThe amazing website of Jon Rogers, spaceship archeologist. A new and growing site, it will eventually be the definitive website for famous spacecraft of movies and TV.Romance to RealityContains more than 300 detailed annotations (that is, summaries and descriptions) of classic, seminal, and illustrative moon and Mars exploration and settlement studies dating from 1950 to present

Scott Lowthers WebsiteKeep an eye on this site. Mr. Lowther is working on a book entitled "Spaceship Design", which will render this website obsolete. This is due to the fact that Scott is a real rocket scientist, and I am not. Mr. Lowther has also done some science fiction technical consulting .SFCONSIM-LThis Yahoo discussion group is devoted to science fiction conflict simulation game development. There is lots of hard science, and interesting notes on spacecraft combat. Much of this website is cribbed from SFConSim-l.Single Stage to Orbit Vertical Takeoff and Landing Concept Technology ChallengesDiscusses the challenges of designing a rocket with space-opera performance.Space Art in children's booksContains many images of rocketship concepts of yore.Space Exploration and Nuclear PropulsionOverview of nuclear propulsion.Space Shuttle Reference ManualNothing like details from a real spacecraft as a reality check.Space Stations and Manned Spaceflight in the 1980s and 90sInteresting vintage artist conceptions of what might have been assembled by Marcus Lindroos.Space - YarchiveAn archive of useful Usenet threads on various space travel topics.Space Weapons, Earth WarsRAND analysis of various space based weapons.Star Destroyer dot NetOn the surface this site is for arguing whether a Star Wars Imperial Star Destroyer can defeat the Starship Enterprise. But it has lots of hard-science essays and is totally no nonsense. In the site index examine the discussions under Essays and ScienceTales of Future PastA fabulous website surveying visions of the future as seen in 1950's era science fiction. Contains loads of vintage retro illustrations.The Tom Corbett, Space Cadet homepageThe Tough Guide to the Known GalaxyA dictionary of science fiction topics. Pithy, hysterical, but very accurate.TV Tropes Wiki: Speculative FictionAn encyclopedia of common tropes in science fiction on TV. Spot-on, accurate, exceedingly funny. You should read this so as to avoid the tired old standard misconceptions.

V-2 Rocket Paper ModelScroll down and click on the V-2 Rocket link. Most of the "special effects" footage of rocket liftoff in the Tom Corbett TV show was actually films of WWII German V-2 rockets. This exquisite paper model from Currell Graphics reproduces the rocket in 1/32nd scale, about 17 inches tall. Download the files, print them out, and assemble. Creative readers can alter this kit to create a scale model of a Space Patrol cruiser, perhaps even with cut-away sections revealing the various decks.V-2 Rocket Plastic ModelsList of various plastic models of the V-2 rocket, current and no longer available.Winston Science Fiction Cover ArtA great site with scans of the cover art of the classic Winston Science Fiction novels. Lots of rockets and spacemen.Worlds of PossibilitySteve Colgan's blog is the ultimate alien and exobiology website.