1.Introduction: The purpose of this report was to investigate India's economic, demographic and cultural characteristics, it's problems and the existing barriers to development and to suggest possible measure to help India with its problems as it is now considered a lesser developed country.
2. Characteristics of India:
2.1 Economic Characteristics: 60% of India's workers are in the agricultural sector (as of 1999). This is mainly so that they can produce enough for their own needs and for that of their families, with little surplus to trade. Their standard of living depends directly on what they produce themselves. Only 23% and 17% of the labour force is taken up with occupations in services and industry irrespectively. India has a large economy, which is determined by its gross national product (GNP), the value of all goods and services produced in a year. But when the country's huge population is divided into its GNP, the GDP per capita (per person) is only three hundred and seventy US dollars.
For this reason India is considered a developing country. India's unemployment rate is 8.8% which is surprisingly low. The main reason that India is a lesser developed country is because that many of the of the Indian people can not afford to buy tools and equipment as their savings are not sufficient. Because they can not get tools and equipment they can not increase their income so they get caught in the vicious circle of poverty. Twenty five percent of India people are below the poverty line.
2.2 Demographic Characteristics: India has a population of 1,045,845,226 (July 2002 est.) which makes it extremely overpopulated. It is believed that if India's growth rate continues as it is, by 2050 the population will exceed that of China. The life expectancy of people living in India is.Citation styles:
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India is a fastest developing country in the world. India, with its diversified culture, civilization, natural resources, technology and huge skilled human resources, is also a fastest growing economy in the world. But at the same time there are several problems plaquing our Modern India which is affecting the growth and development.
These problems can be broadly classified as:
Other major Problems
1. Socio-economic Problems
The major socio-economic problem being faced by India is ‘Poverty’. Even after six decades of independence, the country is still fighting against this social evil of poverty.
It is estimated that nearly one third of Indian population of 1.21 Billion, i.e. nearly 426 millions of people are living below poverty line. Many go without a meal a day.
Though Governments are struggling hard to eradicate poverty, the increasing population and mismanagement of government schemes, have fueled the growth of poverty. The population is growing at an alarming rate.
In last ten years the population has grown by 0.20 billion. The positive effects of development are nullified by increase in population. Hence there is an urgent need to curtail population growth, by adopting strict family planning programmes by government.
Apart from this there is also a need to increase rural and urban employment, by better management of Government Schemes like Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGREGS), Jawaharlal Nehru Rojagar Yojana (JNRY), etc. By strict implementation of these schemes poverty can be reduced to a substantial extent.
The second most burning socio-economic problem of India is ‘Unemployment’. Nearly 9.4% of Indian population is unemployed. i.e. around 120 million people are either unemployed or underemployed. This large number of unemployment is of great concern and governments are devising new and effective schemes to curb this unemployment. Again by strictly implementing MGREGS and JNRY Schemes, it is possible to reduce the rate of unemployment. Since poverty is directly linked to unemployment, the schemes and effort by government to eradicate unemployment, also helps in eradicating poverty.
2. The Other Major Problems:
The other major problem faced by India is lack of ‘Quality education’. Despite governments initiative in schemes like ‘Serva Shikhsa Abhiyana’( Education For All), many children in rural India, still do not have access to good schools and quality education.
Further the rural children have to work to contribute to their family income, thereby denying time for education. Despite the government’s effort on compulsory education and child labour ban, many children are still not able to go to schools. Added to this lack of quality teachers is also a cause for decline in quality education. Poverty eradication and improvements of rural schools should be a priority area of concern for governments to address this problem.
The next important social problem being faced by India is ‘Corruption’ Corruption is widespread in India. It ranks 72 among top most corrupt countries in the world. In India corruption takes the form of bribes, evasion of taxes, misappropriation of funds, embezzlement etc.
A study found that more than 50% had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office.
The main economic consequence of corruption, are loss to exchequer, an unhealthy environment for investment and increase in cost of government services. Apart from this Corruption also leads to an unethical society. This increases the already existing gap between poor and wealthy. This may lead to unrest and destruction of modern societies. This social evil needs to be curbed so as to bring back moral values in the society as well as to fill the widening gap between the haveones and havenots.
The introduction of Lokpal Bill in the Parliament, its strict implementation and a moral fight against corruption may help in eradicating corruption in public life.
The other major problem is ‘terrorism and naxalism’ this is also the offshoot of social inequality. Many youths in India, due to poverty and lack of education, have trodden the path of either terrorism or Naxalism. Naxalism though, having its root in Marxism, its main cause lies in unequal distribution of wealth. The root cause of terrorism in India is attributable to partly to Logistic fundamentalism and partly due to regionalism. If we curb these two basic issues, by removing social inequality and religious tolerance, and equal development in all the states, these menaces can be easily controlled.
The above problems being faced by Modern India can not be solved just by Government Policies and Schemes, but these can be definitely addressed by people’s wholehearted participation and willingness to commit ourselves to Social values, equality and education.
When I started college in 2000, there was just a single metro transit system in India. In 15 years, we now have 7 metro systems in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Chennai, Jaipur and Gurgaon and another 7 more to open within 2 years. There were 0 expressways. Now, there are 23 and 22 more to come in the next couple of years. Less than 3 people out of every 100 had a phone and those three were likely urban rich. Now, almost every family has phones.
Not just the technology. 4 more years have been added to an Indian's life with growing life expectancy, while the fertility ratio (# of children per woman) has fallen to a healthy 2.3 from over 3. Only about 40% of females over 15 were literate back in 2000 ( Country Profiles ). Now, it is over 60%. Enrollment in pre-primary education has more than doubled. There is a massive drop especially in young female illiteracy.
All in a little more than a decade. When someone says India is not developing, they have their eyes tightly shut. We have a long way to go, but we are on track. Why don't poor Indians start a revolution?
As of 2015, India along with Mexico, Brazil, Malaysia, Turkey, South Africa and China has already graduated to the next stage from a developing country. It is no longer considered developing by the IMF, but a Newly industrialized country - just one below the developed. This is a big step since 1947. It is also a part of G-20 major economies - influential economies in the world and becoming a key base for many for world's leading corporations. Even in the 1970s, India found itself ranked only with economic basketcases.
There is not just the economic growth. In military, Indian firepower has already jumped to the 4th place ( Global Firepower Military Powers Ranked for 2015 ) and that means India no longer is pushed around like it was in your grandpa's time. It has been decades since India fought a full war and that is because we have enough firepower to defend against aggression.
In space, we have already become among a major power coming to ranks with the developed world. In computing, nuclear energy and other areas of high technology, it is closing the ranks with the developed world.
A lot of these developments happened in just 20 years. In my own short lifetime, I have seen India grow from a nuclear pariah to a defacto nuclear power. From an ignored economy to a major economic power. From a nation playing with crude technology to a nation on the cutting edge of a number of sectors. From a nation sending amateur rockets to finding water on moon & sending objects to Mars. I have seen cities grow from rubbish to ones with skyscrapers, metro railsystems and freeways. Different View of India: Pictures of Indian cities you don't see in overseas media.
If I extrapolate the changes I have observed in the last 20 years, I'm fairly confident that I will see a developed India before I die.
Here is what I think we should do to get there: India Dreams Collection
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Because that is exactly what we are now, developing, for years.
Does anybody realistically believe that a vast sub continent like India with a huge and diverse population and a host of contentious and complex issues can become a developed country within just a few years, or even decades?
Though we have without doubt shaken off our image as a backward or poor country, we are yet to cover a lot of ground to reach the income levels and standards of living of the more developed countries.This can not be achieved overnight, or even anytime very soon.
Till such time we can only think and say that India is a developing country.
PS: In my perception India was a weak and malnourished child during the 1950s and 60s. She became an alienated and rebellious adolescent teen through the 1970s and 80s.She graduated to be a strapping youth of energy and enterprise around the 1990s through the 2000s. Logically now is the time and age for her to find her true calling and come to terms with herself in all her commitments and relationships.
Will she or won't she? That is the million dollar question for the present generation to answer ;)
EDIT in response to the excellent comment of Sathyapriyan Chinnathangam (முத்து ராஜ)
First and foremost we need to accept that we have a population of 1.2 billion people, and even after achieving eminently acceptable replacement levels, our population is bound to grow rapidly for some more decades if only due to the huge base effect. We are likely to overtake China as the"world's most populous nation" in just 7 years time by 2022, and cross the 1.50 billion mark by 2030. This very crucial aspect has to be factored in before we embark on any reasonable predictions or realistic projections.
I think housing for all is a very tall order, and most probably not feasible even in most of the developed countries. Other than this, access to all other amenities mentioned in the comment are already improving consistently through the earlier, more difficult decades, and are likely to grow exponentially in the coming decades, due to the effects of exposure to globalization, and rapidly expanding technology. Even here, all that any Government can aim is to absolutely reduce the levels of absolute poverty, and relatively reduce the relative poverty, because total eradication of poverty is well nigh impossible at any point of time in any large societies.
It is commonly accepted that in general it takes at least three generations for even individuals or households to climb out of poverty and achieve reasonable levels of financial security and economic prosperity. And one generation roughly corresponds to 30 years. So, with the caveats mentioned in the above two paragraphs, and barring any major natural disaster or human tragedy, I honestly believe India can reach satisfactory levels of general well being comparable to most of the so called developed countries in about four decades, or by the time the Nation celebrates the Centenary of her independence. Amen.
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"I must study politics and war so that my sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy. My sons ought to study mathematics and philosophy, geography, natural history, naval architecture, navigation, commerce, and agriculture, in order to give their children a right to study painting, poetry, music, architecture, statuary, tapestry, and porcelain."
John Adams(2nd president of US: In office 1797-1801)
We have to understand that change in a nation happens in generations. It took around 2 centuries for America to become what it is now (in case, we compare our development with the US).
As an example, we may notice that the issues coming up during the elections have evolved from "Roti,Kapda,Makan" (Food, Clothing and Shelter) to "Corruption,Economic Policies,Law and Order,etc" Thus, there has been a change in the problems faced by the Indians, suggesting a possible upgrade in terms of Maslow's Heirarchy. There's much scope for improvement for India in the future & has accomplished much more in the course of short history of 66 years old independent India. In this sense, it is a developing country.
Some regions have developed upto the standards we deem as "developed region" & others are catching up to their standards. As the development process is going on, India is still a "developing country", & this fact shouldn't be taken negatively.
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Already we have some amazing answers of this fantastic open-ended question. It can be corruption, it can be high population, it can be bad media, it can be our laziness and 'chalta hae' attitude, it can be racial discrimination and reservation and even it can be attributed to a single political family. I especially like STs view that we are a developed nation in serious long term decay.
I will try to answer this with some geography, history, biology and butterfly effect. India is not landlocked - so it had advantages of trade and economic growth and we did very well once upon a time. Our prosperity attracted various tribes (Mughals, British etc.) and it soon turned out to be a resource curse. Over hundreds of years our country was looted, we were treated as slaves, and we had negligible economic growth.
Let's go deeper - why Europeans invaded India and not the other way round? I believe it is about the culture of taking risk, entrepreneurship, making and breaking things, mercilessly killing people to capture resources and building one's own destiny. Indians are generally risk averse and can accommodate their life problems with complaining much about it (we are generally lazy). Why is it so? My view is lack of extreme weather conditions in most part of India. Indian weather is not pleasant - in most places it is hot and humid. But very few places in India have extreme weather conditions where you can die if you don't make proper arrangements of shelter or arrange air-condition. Now consider US or Europe - most of the places there have extreme weather conditions which necessitates them to fight, innovate and build things. They will simply die if they don’t do hard work, innovate and build things. Some can say Africa is also extreme – then why Africa is not a developed continent. I will come to that.
I see another trend. Most of the developed nations have similar demographics – same language (English, Japanese or Chinese), almost similar culture and similar thought process (Christian or Confusion etc.). It is highly debatable if our ‘Unity in Diversity’ is slowing our growth but in my view it is. Just look at our political system – there is no two party leadership which makes decision making so difficult. I sometimes think it is an artificial integration – there is so less similarity between people from north, south, east or western part of this country.
Finally I will come to biology and butterfly effect. Africa has extreme weather similar to Europe– then why most Africans failed to innovate and build things similar to Europeans. Africa is extreme hot but Europe/US is generally extreme cold. Not sure if extreme cold is more favorable for superior intelligence but for some biological reason in general African people have low IQ (small brain) than others. So biology has a role to play. I should not say Indians have low intelligence and biologically there is a significant statistical trend of lower IQ than white but there is chaos and butterfly effect. The world is so complex that you can sometimes truly determine a complex system because so many variables are in play. It is true that for a country of our size we have not shown enough innovation in recent past (consider noble prize, patents, number of Phds, original movies etc.)and that is due to many factors – lack of innovation eco-system, politics etc. But as a system we are not doing very well.
Can we do better or there is no hope. That is a different (and more difficult) question – I will answer that another day.
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Ajay Saxena. I want to let Indians know about soul of India;Founder: ecobharat.in&EcoPurse ®
Few trying to tame the big one and most try to stay ignorant in the process.
4.8k Views · View Upvotes · Not for Reproduction · Answer requested by Ankit KouravThe reasons for India being an under developed nation are follows:
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India is a developing country because of not one but numerous factors:
1. Diversity: There is a huge diversity in India in terms of geography, people, languages, religions, etc. The government has the responsibility of understanding all these differences and then making suitable policies for the people accommodating their needs.
2. Prime moving force (PMF) of Indian economy: After independence, industries were declared as the PMF of Indian economy while 72% of the working population was engaged in agriculture and it contributed nearly 50% to India's national income. It was only in 2002 that agriculture was declared the PMF.
(This point is a bit controversial as there are pros of both industries and agriculture as PMF).
3. Development pattern of economic sectors in India: In most countries, first the primary (agriculture and allied sectors) sector gets developed, then secondary sector (industries) and then the tertiary (service) sector. In India, a unique pattern of development has taken place. While a major chunk of the population is dependent on agriculture for livelihood, service sector is the sector which contributes most to the country's income.
Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 13.7% of the GDP(Gross Domestic Product) in 2013,  about 50% of the total workforce.
4.Population explosion: The population in India is huge and any investment done on infrastructure becomes insufficient all because of huge population. Many scholars have argued that this huge population is a big asset for India. I think this would be true only if we had sufficient resources to harness this potential. Also, huge population would mean a negative impact on the environment and natural resources of the country. It is high time the government takes some serious steps to curb the growing population.
5. Red-tapism: Too many formalities have to be followed in order to get something done which slows everything down.
6. Lack of innovation: We have not had a revolutionary innovation in fields like education, healthcare, etc. There is an urgent need for such facilities in the remote areas of the country.
An example of such innovations would be the school of the Air and remote learning and the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia (RFDS) of Australia.
We have come a long way: At the time of independence the average life expectancy was 31 years, in 2005 it was 64 years. The death rate, which used to be around 45 per thousand, is down to just about 8 per thousand. Literacy was 16%, now it is 70%. We have really come a long way.
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I am going to stress on ‘known as’ part of the question.
We all are aware that government of India gives special aides to lower income groups and the extent of aid increases as income bracket goes down, so naturally many citizens try to show much less income than they actually earn (some opt for legal ways such as investments and some not so legal, but that’s not relevant here) so that they are placed in lower income category.
Something similar happens on global stage. Organisations like World bank have defined these categories of Developed Countries and Developing Countries and the latter are offered better loan packages compared to their counterparts. So India would want to keep its ‘Developing Country’ status to keep receiving such packages until it becomes crystal clear to the world body that India is a developed nation.Certainly it doesn’t make sense to call ourselves a developed nation with such a huge trade-off.
Note. Recently world bank has changed the categories and according to recent classifications India comes under ‘Lower-Middle Income’ Group with likes of Pakistan and Bangladesh giving us company.
The above article present various important facts(see the table below) which clearly explains India is long way off from becoming a ‘Developed Country’ anyway.
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India. No More a Developing Nation !
The IMF divides nations under the following categories:Undeveloped, Developing, Newly-Industrialized, Industrialized and Developed .
Since I was born, I have been hearing that India has been a developing nation ever since it attained independence. But, recently things have changed!
IMF recently revised the status of various nations moving a set of Developing Nations to the category of Newly-Industrialized Nations. And, India among Brazil, China, Mexico and various other nations were brought under this new domain.
I don’t know why such a big change in a nation’s international image went unnoticed! Still, it’s a clear indication that things are changing and with the investments and the no. of development projects in various sectors splurging up, the changes are happening at a commendable rate.
In the picture above, the countries in blue are the ones that have recently evolved into the Newly-Industrialized Nations.
*This includes superpowers like China as well. Many people have been thinking that China is a developed nation, but the reality doesn’t match up to that.
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