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"Show How Miller Creates and Sustains Tension in The Crucible"
Arthur Miller is considered to be one of the greatest playwrights of recent times, and was responsible for classics such as Death of A Salesman, All My Sons and The Crucible. The Crucible was written in 1953. The play's theme of hysteria and fear within average citizens is similar to that created by Joseph McCarthy in 1950, often called McCarthyism. McCarthy was responsible for creating fear in America that Russian Communism would take over the world thus crushing the American Dream. Miller was disgusted by the way that people were forced to name names, and in response to this he decided to write the Crucible. Miller noticed the parallels between the witch hunts of the 1600's and the present day McCarthyism situation, and wrote this play in response.
The play is filled with tension, created by forces which come together to produce a highly dramatic chain of events all leading one after the other.
The first example of tension in the play happens immediately. We are introduced to the character Reverend Parris. Parris is kneeling, weeping at his daughter's sick bed,
This is when Parris shouts at his servant, Tituba, who enquires about the child's health. It shows how tense Parris is and also about how worried he is, he is also worried as he himself knows that the girls were dancing in the woods and this is a sure sign of witchcraft. He is also scared as both he and the doctor cannot do anything to help cure Betty, and so are left powerless watching her. Maybe this may indicate to Parris, especially as he is a reverend and thus a holy man, that her problems are more supernatural than that of a sick person.
"you might look for unnatural things for the cause of it"
This displays one of the most important causes of tension in the play, how characters blame all that happens on the supernatural. Another example of this is when Mrs Putnam blames her babies death.
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Aim of the coursework In my course work I am going to investigate the uses, success and sustainability of river management strategies used in the Abingdon stretch of the river Thames. Location The population of Abingdon in the 2001 census was 36,000; this makes Abingdon the largest town in UK without a railway link. Abingdon is situated on the flat land of the Thames valley and has the small river Ock running through it along with river Thames. The river Ock is a small English river that is a tributary of the river Thames. As well as the A415 the town is also connected by the B4017 and A4183, both of these where part of the old A34 and are often heavily congested. The A415 runs adjacent to the A34 trunk road which links to the M4 and M40. The chosen river (The Thames) runs downstream to London; this makes Abingdon a vital point in the Thames river system to protect. The river is heavily protected in the Abingdon; this is to try and prevent flooding downstream in London, by controlling the amount the river can flood upstream at places such as Abingdon. People have made the decision to protect London due to the.
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Compare and Contrast the Characters and Actions of Elizabeth Proctor and Abigail Williams. Which Of Them Do You Consider to Be More Responsible for John's Death, and why? In Arthur Miller's "The Crucible ", there are two characters that differ in every aspect: Abigail Williams and Elizabeth Proctor. This ranges from the way they handle situations, their personalities, to their social statuses, history and so forth. Their social statuses can only be described as very contrasting: Abigail Williams is an orphan and the niece of Reverend Parris. She used to work as a servant for the Proctors, but her one night stand with John led to her dismissal by Elizabeth. Abigail is seen as very low, socially; as she is unmarried and an orphan (her parents were killed by American-Indians). The only people who are seen as lower than her are slaves (such as Tituba) and social outcasts. On the contrary, Elizabeth is seen as a respectable woman as she is religious and married to a man of equal respect. We don't know much about her background, but she is highly regarded, has children with her husband and is a church-goer. Personality-wise, Elizabeth and Abigail are incredibly different. Abigail is seen as sly but passionate and dominating. She is cunning and determined to get whatever she wants - everything that Elizabeth is not. Elizabeth is faithful, seen to be quiet and has definite religious beliefs. However from some aspects she is portrayed as cold and.
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It is amazing how lies told by a young female in The Crucible can start so much trouble in society. In a puritan society they thought of woman as inferior to men, and that they were not capable of doing much. George Orwell who was a author and a critic once stated that,” Man is the only creature that consumes without producing. He does not give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits yet he is the Lord of all animals.” This quote is the perfect summary of women that are in The Crucible . They are forgotten and underappreciated in the play. Though they do so much for their husbands and have such a big part in the men’s lives, they were not given the respect they deserved. Arthur Miller took that idea and broadens it in his play The Crucible . Abigail Williams, Elizabeth Proctor, Mary Warren and many other women portray Arthur Miller’s views on women in the play. His treatment of women throughout the novel is a look at what was thought of women during that time in history. It was thought that a women’s role was to live a holy lifestyle, reproduce, and stand behind her husband at all times. The main women in the play image certain types of women and Miller uses these characters to portray his views and reflect the title of the play. Arthur Miller's The Crucible is a troubled literary work, not only because of the madness surrounded by the hangings but.
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The Crucible . by Arthur Miller, is a historical fiction play about the famed Salem witch trials. Historical fiction? So it's both historical fact and fiction? Is it more fact or fiction? In my opinion this play, The Crucible . is more fiction than fact. This is only my opinion though, it is not a fact and it cannot be proven that the play is more fact than fiction or the other way around. In this paper I will discuss why it is my opinion that The Crucible is more fiction that fact. In my opinion that Arthur Miller changed too many things in the play to make it very factual. Why did he do that? I think that there are several reasons. One of the reasons is in fact the reason he wrote the play. According to several sites Miller wrote the play to be a parody of the McCarthy era, in which there was a witch hunt' for communists.(Context) Miller was actually one of the people questioned by the McCarthy committee. We now know that the McCarthy witch hunt was based on very little real, factual evidence, much like the Salem witch trials. Not only was this play supposed to parody the McCarthy era, chances are Miller wrote the play to be a success. Many good books have a love interest to make the book more readable. Arthur Miller wanted to do good work, just like everyone else who writes stories, and to make the play better he added a love interest between John Proctor and Abigail Williams. That is one of the huge changes.
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The Crucible is play written in 1952 by Arthur Miller that is based off the Salem witch trials that took place in Salem, Massachusetts. More than 150 people were accused of witchcraft during this time period. Nineteen people were hung between 1692 and 1693, and one was pressed to death. The Crucible is known to be one of the hallmarks of American literature and has been produced consistently since the 19th century. It was first recognized as a standard piece of literature and was commonly known as a melodrama. Arthur Miller was an accused victim of the “red scare,” and used this play as an allegory to the accusations that he faced. In order for a play to be successful, the play needs to have a strong beginning with conflict and tension so that the audience does not lose interest within the first few minutes. The play needs to be suspenseful and use dramatic irony effectively with a purpose. Conflict must be apparent, but it cannot overwhelm the audience with too many problems. In the Crucible . Miller uses a three part structure which uses in medias res that is flawed in the middle, a subplot that keeps the audience drawn in and employs dramatic irony that is appealing and humorous. Arthur Miller incorporates a three-part structure in order to make the reader more interested and drawn into the play. In the beginning, he introduces the conflicts along with the characters and “throws” the audience right into the action, which is.
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114315 Mrs. Ingersoll March 19, 2014 Salem’s Outbreak Throughout The Crucible by Arthur Miller, the Salem witchcraft trials accidentally become what are known as one of the most controversial events in Massachusetts history. A young woman named Abigail Williams, along with several other girls, lead accusations of witchcraft against their community in an attempt to deflect repercussions from their own witchcraft encounters. This constant accusing results in the wrongful condemnation of innocent townspeople, creating uncomfortable paranoid tension amongst the townspeople. This Puritan society changes from calm and easy going to a paranoid disarray. The three most recognizable causes that contribute to the Salem witchcraft trials; the impending fear of punishment, a cry for attention, and a sense of prideful vengeance power the girls into deluding their fellow townspeople. In this strictly religious society, the power resides in the church, and anyone who goes against the church is severely punished. The idea of witchcraft is unorthodox and the society’s members will not stand for it. When Abigail and the girls are discovered dancing in the woods along with Tituba, Reverend Parris asks her repeatedly to confess her sin. Abigail refuses to disclose any information about the incident in the woods due to fear of punishment. In order to make sure that she does not get punished, she scolds the other girls that are with her, “We danced. And Tituba.
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of “groupthink”, written by Irvin Janis, during the course of The Crucible . Janis’ article explores the psychology of decision making among a group. The major symptoms that seem to manifest The Crucible are self-censorship, pressure, and mindguards. Self-censorship is a common symptom of “groupthink” shown throughout Miller’s play. For instance, while John Proctor is frustrated about the accusations made against his wife, Elizabeth, Hale hesitates but must stand his ground and keep his opinions to himself. Miller writes, “Proctor:… There are them that will swear to anything before they’ll hang; have you never thought of that? Hale: I have. I—I have. It is his own suspicion, but he resists” (Miller 1303). Proctor seems to not understand that all accusations must be acted on and Hale must do his job as a Reverend, despite the outcome. Hale hides his suspicions by keeping his doubts to himself, therefore, exhibiting self-censorship. Supporting Miller’s example, Janis describes the symptom itself. “Groupthink” states, “avoid deviating from what appears to be group consensus; they keep silent about their misgivings… minimizes the importance of their doubts” (Janis). Unexpressed doubt avoids conflict to maintain the apparent majority rule. Clearly, Hale keeps silent, making his opinion a minority to the group’s decision. Although, self-censorship is a significant symptom expressed, some characters in The Crucible portray unanimity.
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College Prep English 1 10 November 2013 The Crucible The Red Scare inspired Arthur Miller to write The Crucible . which is one of the best societal mirrors ever made. It portrays influential universal truths, one of many being that people often cave in to authority figures for fear of being socially isolated. Throughout the story this specific truth comes up frequently in many forms, from the lack of resistance to the trials to the actions of some of the girls involved. Additionally, the actions of a slave named Tituba inevitably pushed these trials into motion resulting in the tragic ends of many innocent lives. This story is relatable on both a personal and societal level. Arthur Miller’s Story, The Crucible . is a fantastic societal mirror in many ways; no matter where a person is coming from, anyone who reads this story can empathize with it. For example, in the very beginning of the play, Parris said, “Now then, in the midst of such disruption, my own household is discovered to be the very center of some obscene practice. Abominations are done in the forest-” and was then disrupted by Abigail(Miller 3). This was in the midst of the dispute Parris and Abigail had over what really happened in the woods. Parris wanted the full story about what events had occurred so he wouldn’t be caught off guard if his opponents found out and questioned him on the matter. He was quick to publicly suggest that some outside force was behind.
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I am a student at The xxx xxxxx School in xxxxxxxxx. I am studying graphics for one of my GCSE's. The course includes designing a board game. I would be much oblidged if you could send me some information regarding the production of board/card game and how/why they are successful.
I must get about two e-mails of this sort per month from people lulled by our web site into thinking we are some sort of big time games company.
Some, thankfully, ask some very specific questions about the games production business but most make a very general request for any information I think relevant. Not having done a Graphics course of any sort it is very difficult for me to determine what might be relevant - do they want to know about the design of the game or the manufacturing process?
Ironically, since I wrote this article, my middle son has gone to University to study graphic design but wisely has steered clear of doing board games for his course work.
Anyway, like most children is extremely reluctant to tell me anything about his course work so the text below is my shot at satisfying the students' demands without knowing a damn about the subject.
I don't suppose for a moment any of them will stumble across this article before sending me an e-mail but at least I will be able to direct them to this page in my reply.Some general design concepts
The key ingredients to a good game are player interaction and decision making.
By player interaction I mean that decisions or actions taken by one player must have some impact on the decisions or actions taken by another player.
Ways of encouraging player interaction include auctions, trading, territorial expansion or what is known in the games hobby as "Ha! Take that!" - which is usually achieved by Player One playing a card on Player Two (e.g. "You are too drunk to go to work today. Miss one turn." Player Two might have a "Hangover Cure" card in her hand which would enable her to negate the effects of Player One's card.)
If we take Monopoly as an example, the game achieves player interaction in three main ways.
Firstly, if a player lands on an property and declines to buy it, the property goes up for auction. All players, including the player who declined to buy it, then bid for the property. (Notice here that this gives the player a decision to make; will she get the property cheaper if she allows it to go for auction or would she be better off buying the property outright? If the other players are strapped for cash she would be better off allowing the property to go to auction).
Secondly, if players want to they may trade properties between each other. This encourages interaction in the form of negotiating the best deal.
Thirdly, there is a more passive form of interaction which occurs when Player A lands on Player B's property and has to pay rent.
In order to maintain interest in a game a player should be offered the opportunity to make decisions often. The game should offer the opportunity to analyse the current situation (i.e. look at the board, look at the other players' assets etc.) and make a decent guess at what would be the best decision to make. The decision may be right or wrong (perhaps through a misreading of another player's strategy) but ideally the game should be one where the quality of the decision is determined by the play of the players, not the roll of the dice or the turn of the card.
In other words, try not to make your game too luck dependent.
If we take the game Snakes & Ladders. for instance, there is no decision making whatsoever in it, you just roll the dice and move the "dobber" (counter). However, what if instead of rolling the dice we gave the players a hand of cards numbered from 1 to 6 and allowed them to choose how many squares to move, playing 1 card each turn and only replenishing the hand when all 6 cards have been used? This adds a little more decision making but makes it quite easy to navigate up the board.
So what if we introduced rules where players can play cards to move other players' dobbers if, say, their own dobber is on a square number that is divisible by 4 (when designing the board you would colour code these squares)?
What if we also introduced rules which said only one dobber is allowed on a square? This would allow a certain amount of blocking, particularly if each player had 2 or more dobbers to navigate up the board.
You could take the basic idea behind Snakes & Ladders, include some of the ideas I have outlined above, and completely change the theme so that it becomes a game of exploring ancient ruins (lots of pits and ladders) or beating the rush hour (lots of road blocks and short cuts).
One other good design concept is to keep the game moving along at a brisk pace. Asking the player to make one agonising choice between two or three almost equally desirable options every three minutes is much more preferable than allowing the player to make seven or eight decisions out of a possible 25 every twenty minutes.
In other words, as a player you are much more likely to have fun if your turn comes round often, even if you don't have much to do on your turn. If the game has a reasonable amount of interaction you'll be involved on other players' turns anyway.Some manufacturing tips
When designing your game bear in mind the production process. How difficult will it be to produce the game you are designing? Will it need a big board? Will it need thousands of counters? Will it require lots of record keeping on the part of players? Will it require special counters?
In some ways it may be easier to look at what game components you can easily lay your hands on and use that as an inspiration for the game's theme. For instance, sea shells, toy soldiers, beads, pebbles and marbles are easy to get hold of. I've even thought of using cake decorations in my games.
Whatever you choose, as a general rule it is better to have a few components than a lot. Believe me, I have designed a game that requires counting out six lots of 25 small counters, six lots of five medium-sized counters, six lots of four large counters and six lots of 12 pawns into six plastic bags for one of my games and it drives me nuts.
These days there is pretty good software available to draw the board for you (if you choose to have a board; not all "board" games do). Hopefully your school will have an A3 inkjet printer to use so you can print off a colour board. The ink will run if played on, however, so you'll need to get it laminated. This can be done at somewhere such as Ryman's. You won't be able to fold the board after folding it, but you will be able to roll it up.
If you need counters (of the tiddley-wink sort) I usually have some in stock or you can get small quantities from the Early Learning Centre, or even a Sunday morning car boot sale.
Your game will look better in a box with a cover on it. Again, we have blank (white) boxes available which we'll be happy to sell to you (about 70p plus postage).
On to the blank box you can put a cover on the front, featuring eye catching colour artwork and a logo. The cover should contain the game's name, the designer (it is common practice in mainland Europe to credit the designer), how many players it is suitable for (e.g. 3 to 6), how long a typical game takes (e.g. 90 minutes) and what age group (e.g. 10 to 90).
On the back you can get by with black & white copy, although colour is better. Here you should give a brief description of the game and maybe showcase the components.
On the sides of the box you will need to put the name of the game and possibly how many players it is for etc. (e.g. "Saddle Up" - the game of pony trekking. For 3 to 6 players, aged 10 and up)
The game should also contain rules. This will possibly be the hardest bit if you actually have to design a playable game. Typically it takes me two years to design a game that works, which does not have any loopholes in it, which keeps everyone involved and which is actually enjoyable to play. In order to get it to that stage I have to invite people to play it over and over again, taking notes on what worked and what didn't. Finally I have to find a group of people who have never played it before and let them try the finished version without any assistance from me to see whether they can play the game properly. Given that half the world seems to play the wrong rules to Monopoly it is a lot easier than you think for players to get the wrong end of the stick with rules.
Hopefully, however, your game will only have to look the part, and not actually play well all the way through the finish. So long as the first two turns look OK when you demonstrate it, you should be all right; don't have a rule in the Pony Trekking game where the first player can hire all six available ponies on turn 1 and thereby prevent all the other players from doing anything useful on their turn.
When designing rules always include lots of examples, preferably with diagrams.
I'll finish off by answering a few specific queries I have received from other GCSE candidates.
1) How do your games get from being designed to being produced for the market
We do two types of game. "Game kit" standard and "semi-pro" standard. "Game kit" is for a game which we think will sell to a small but dedicated following who won't mind doing a bit of DIY on the game components; this mainly means cutting out their own cards, sticking labels on to counters and so on. Typically the boards for these games are produced on our A3 high quality inkjet and laminated using a lamination pouch (which makes it difficult to fold the board). The artwork is typically done in-house by the lousy but dedicated Fiendish partners, using software such as Corel Draw, SmartDraw and Page Plus.
The "semi-pro" games are done to a higher standard, which means employing a graphic artist to do the artwork, getting the board produced professionally by a printing company who will give it a laminate coating and fold the boards for us. In both the game kit and semi-pro versions our components are sourced from either Dice & Games or Plastics for Games .
The "market" we are aiming at is the committed board gamer who plays at least once a week and who buys magazines on the subject. We do not sell to the "gift" market or the high street chains (chance would be a fine thing). The high street market is very different to the one we aim at; although none of the games companies would admit it, they do not expect the games they sell to be played more than once, if at all. Market research backs this up - a game purchased in Britain is, on average, played less than once.
2) How many people does it take to produce a single game design?
How many people does it take to write a song? Really, it depends. Most game designs are solo efforts, although occasionally there are two-person collaborations.
A game designed by committee would probably be a horrible concoction.
Having said that, although the design is usually a solo effort there is a lot of consultation and play-testing along the way, as alluded to above. Ideally I'd like to try my game out on at least three groups of four or five people, typically people who play a lot of games. These gamers have a lot of experience of games - they will almost certainly have played over 1,000 different board games in their life - so they know what works and will have ideas which can be borrowed and adapted from other games.
In addition, the graphic artist will have some input on the design process, not only in terms of coming up with interesting visuals but game aids too. Game aids are things like scoreboards, markers to show whose turn it is, crib sheets which outline the order of play and such like.