The Ideal Women of Homer’s Odyssey
Ancient Greek society treated women as secondary citizens. Restrictions were placed on the social and domestic actions of many aristocratic women in ancient Athens. The women depicted in Homer's Odyssey, on the other hand, are the ideal. Penelope, Clytaemestra, Athena, and Helen are all women with exceptional liberty and power.
Before comparing the women of the Odyssey to those of Athens, it is beneficial to take a look into the lives of the latter. A respected woman was to have characteristics including obedience, virtue, refinement, productivity, honor, beauty, talent and intelligence (social consciousness). Sarah B. Pomeroy has studied this aspect of ancient life and discusses it in her book, Families in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. She states that women from this Athenian polis (city-state) are part of their husbands' oikos. Though, these women have some power within the oikos, their primary responsibility was the procreation of sons. They held very little and most likely no political power. They lived by guidelines set by society which were fairly restrictive. They must not do tasks out of doors, for then they would become "the potential prey of rapists and seducers" (Pomeroy 21). The wife must be kept chaste and pure, and so there was a need for a slave-woman. Not only were the women not allowed outdoors, but they were not to come into contact with strangers, particularly men. For, men would vie "to win honour for themselves at the expense of other men's honour, and wives were often mere adolescents" (Pomeroy 21). These "mere adolescent" wives were not only confined in their roles as women, they were also physically confined within the walls of.
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. ncient times. Perhaps the men were in fear that the women, were they in the position of power, would be as repressive as men. For whatever the many reasons for the situation in which the women lived, the truth holds that they are invaluable to society. There may not be a female president for some years to come, but without women in modern society, there would be no male presidents either.
Aeschylus. "Agamemnon." Greek Tragedies. Ed. David Grene and Richmond Lattimore. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1953. 1-61.
Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin, 1996.
Pomeroy: Pomeroy, Sarah B. Families in Classical and Hellenistic Greece: Representations and Realities. New York: Oxford UP, 1997.
Pomeroy2: Pomeroy, Sarah B. Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity. New York: Oxford UP.
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The Goddess Athena
The Goddess Athena is the main female Character in the Odyssey. She is the main female character because she is the female that appears most in the story and helps Odysseus. Athena helps Odysseus throughout the story, she even ask Zeus to make sure that he survives through all of his hardships. For instance, she helps him by disguising him as a beggar when he returns to Ithaca.
Goddess Athena's role in this epic is to help Odysseus through his journey home and make sure that he survives. If she would not have helped Odysseus through his journey, he may have not survived through his journey. Athena plays a major role in making sure that Odysseus comes home safely to his home land of Ithaca.
Daughter of Zeus Athena helps Odysseus many times during the story. She helps him by making sure that he returns to his homeland without being killed.
She helps him when he is threatened to be killed by the Cyclops. When the Cyclops threatens to tell his father that Odysseus was the one who injured him Athena helps him by asking Zeus to make sure that he never is killed. She also helps him when he returns to Ithaca after twenty years lost at sea, by disguising him as a beggar so that he will not be noticed by anyone so he can regain his thrown. This helps him a lot because if he was noticed he might not been able to kill the suitors and get his thrown back.
Athena is considered the main character in this story because she appears many times during the story and is close to the main character, which is Odysseus. She helps him through his journey home. She is responsible for him getting.Citation styles:
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WriteWork contributors, "The Goddess Athena is the main female Character in the Odyssey.," WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/goddess-athena-main-female-character-odyssey (accessed February 25, 2017)Reviews of: "The Goddess Athena is the main female Character in the Odyssey." :
You repeat yourself a lot, which clutters the paper. You also contradict yourself several times: For example, in the sentence "Athena is considered the main character in this story because she appears many times during the story and is close to the main character, which is Odysseus." You say that both Athena and Odysseus are the main character. You also say in the conclusion that Athena is the only female character in the story, but in your first paragraph you suggest that there are other female characters (which is correct).
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return home to the suitors, he will not find hospitality being practiced in Ithaka. But, it is his image of his homecoming, not what will actually happen, that we are dealing with. To restore hospitality, Odysseus 's will kill the suitors, thus making his.
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journey home. When he asked Circe about what lay ahead in his journey home, Circe replied 'There lay are a pair of cliffs. One of them with its jagged peak reaches up to the spreading sky, wreathed in dark cloud that.
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"The Journey of life," this phrase is often applied to the functions of our daily lives, and our ambitions toward our short, intermediate, and long term goals. Life is habitually affiliated with journey, due to the fact that you never know what is going to happen next, and you need to find a way to reach your destination or goal. However, the journey of life does not require a visible transportation device to reach the destination, such as a car, motorcycle, bicycle motivation, change, guidance and a series of tests is all that's needed. In other words, When conceptualizing the call to adventure, I concluded that it pertains to the journey of life, through several rationales. When starting off the journey of life, it always begins with a call to adventure. The call to adventure is the point in one's life where everything undergoes a revolution, regardless of the individual knowing. In other words, it is the event that makes us aware of a lack or gap that exists in our lives. A basis for the call to adventure to have similar grounds to that of the journey of life is that, it starts off the journey to someone's life. In the book, The Odyssey, you could find several examples of this hero's quest stage, - "But you, I urge you, think how to drive these suitors from your halls. Come Now, Listen Closely. Take my words to heart. At day break tell the suitors to scatter, each to his own place sail in quest of news of your long lost father," (Book 1, line 4). These are the words of the goddess Athena, inspiring prince Telemachus, to find his father and drive away the suitors from his home, or meet his doom. This made Telemachus to become motivated to start a journey in search for information regarding his father. Additionally, the call to adventure sets the stage for your future and how you're going to be like in the future. The Odyssey contains a quote saying -"No one has taken over your loyal rights, not yet. Telemachus still holds your great estates in peace, he.
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11/24/12 Concealed Within The Odyssey Plenty of things in the world are tangible. It’s the things we can’t touch like love, loyalty, freedom, friendship, and imagination that are concealed within everyone’s lives. These universal ideas can also be motifs; a motif is a dominant idea or distinctive feature in an artistic or literary composition. Motifs are used to teach a lesson to others throughout out dance, art, or literature. Motifs have been around and hidden in literature for a very long time. Almost 3,000 years ago there was a tale told by Homer, his story is now translated into an epic poem called The Odyssey . The story is based around king Odysseus and his 20 year voyage home from war. This Greek folklore conceals many motifs throughout the story such as revenge, temptations, and women whom possess power. To begin, revenge has been inflicted throughout The Odyssey multiple times. An example of this is after Eurymachus bribed and pleaded for the suitors lives Odysseus replies with, “No, Eurymachus! Not if you paid me all your father’s wealth- / all you possess now … not even then would I stay my hands from slaughter / till all you suitors had paid for all your crimes!” (22. 65-68) .The suitors also treated their king horribly when he was disguised as a beggar, and they all were trying to seduce his wife. The suitors are finally realizing their.
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Nothing can be more life changing than when a God or Goddess chooses to interact with a mortal man. Much of Greek mythology describes the natures of these interactions. In The Odyssey . Gods and Goddesses play a major role during Odysseus’ journey home. He had some gods on his side and others against him. Some were even on his side at one time, but did something to hurt him another time. No matter where he went a God or Goddess was always watching over him. For good or for evil, while Odysseus was on his voyage, Athena, Poseidon, and Zeus all played major roles in his journey home to Ithaca. It begins when fighting in the Trojan War against the Trojans for 10 years; Odysseus has begun seeking his wife, Penelopeia. In The Odyssey . Zeus, Athena, and Poseidon impact Odysseus’ homecoming. To begin with, in The Odyssey . Zeus impacts Odysseus’ homecoming. In Book five, Zeus impacts Odysseus’ journey by sending Hermês to persuade Calypso, the nymph who held Odysseus prisoner for seven years in her cave, to set Odysseus free. When Zeus informs Hermês of his assignment, “Hermês you are my messenger and here is an errand for you. Go and declare to Calypso our unchangeable will, that Odysseus shall return after all his troubles” he is explicit on his instructions (Homer 62). Zeus is all-powerful and whatever he says is done. When he sends word through Hermes to Calypso to release Odysseus, she departs with very little hesitation.
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Rasie Turner Ms. Neff English 1030 22 September 2010 The Odyssey Greek gods and goddesses are very important in the Greek culture. There are a few Greek gods and goddesses that play very important roles in The Odyssey . They are Athena, Zeus, Poseidon, and Circe, and Calypso. The relationship between the mortals and the gods are very interesting. Everything that happens in this poem, dealing with the mortals, is related to one of the gods. Without the gods, Greek culture and literature would be nothing. Zeus is the king of the gods. All of the other gods and mortals look up to him. If anybody needs approval of something, they go to Zeus for the answer. For example, when Odysseus was trapped on Calypso’s island, Athena went to Zeus to get him to help Odysseus off of the island. So Zeus sent Hermes, the messenger of the gods, to Calypso to tell her to release Odysseus form her island. Zeus is very important in Greek literature, and culture. This epic poem starts off with Odysseus trapped on a beautiful, nymph goddess’ island. Her name is Calypso. She held Odysseus on that island for seven years before she let him go. She had fallen in love with him and would not have let him go unless Hermes had not ordered her to. This shows some of the principles in Greek culture. Women were not as important as men. There were plenty Greek gods that messed around with different mortal women, but when Calypso fell in love with one she had to give him.
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The Odyssey Reading Comprehension Questions Part 1 Part 1 1) Where is Odysseus located at the poem’s beginning? 2) What is a muse? And why is Homer asking the muse to, “sing in me?” 3) Who is lord Helios? 4) What did Odysseus’ men do to lord Helios? 5) Who is Odysseus’ father? 6) Where is Odysseus from? (What city is his home?) 7) Who is Calypso? Who is Circe of Aeaea? 8) What did Circe do to Odysseus? 9) Who were the Cicones and what does it sound like Odysseus did to them? What did they do to him and his men in return? 10) After Odysseus’ men (The Achaeans) left the island of the Cicones, how many of them had been killed? 11) How does Odysseus come to the shores of the Lotus eaters? 12) What happens to those who eat the honeyed plant, the Lotus? 13) How does Odysseus get his three men back from the clutches of the Lotus? 14) Write the description that is provided in the book about the Cyclops? 15) What does prodigious mean? 16) When they come ashore on the island of the Cyclops, Odysseus brings his 12 best fighters and something else, what is it? 17) Odysseus and his best men climb into the Cyclops cave and find what? Explain what “kids” and “whey” are. 18) What does the Cyclops swing “high overhead” to block the entrance to the cave? 19) What does Odysseus mean when he says, “…as custom is to honor strangers? We would entreat you, sir, have a care for the gods’ courtesy; Zeus.
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Homer’s Odyssey can teach us about culture in ancient Greece through Odysseus’ voyage home. In the epic poem hospitality, or “xenia,” is expressed as a reoccurring theme. Throughout the epic poem, there are different examples of hosts and guests. Firstly, the poem presents bad hosts such as Calypso and Laistrygones. Calypso is considered a bad host because she held Odysseus prisoner in her home for several years. In Book Five, Athena said to Zeus, “Now he’s left to pine on an island, racked with grief in the nymph Calypso’s house -- she holds him there by force. He has no way to voyage home to his own native land, no trim ships in reach, no crew to ply the oars and send him scudding over the sea’s broad back” (Odyssey . Book 5, lines 12-19). While he is held there, Calypso sleeps with him and offers him immortality if he will stay with her. When Zeus tells Calypso to release him, she is enraged. She says, “I’ll send him off, but not with any escort. I have no ships in reach… But I will gladly advise him—I’ll hide nothing—so he can reach his native country all unharmed” (Odyssey . Book 5, lines 156-157, 159-160). Her hospitality is not the respectful type that guests are supposed to receive; another example of bad hospitality is Laistrygones. Odysseus and his men find their way to an island and seek shelter in a cave that seems to be the home of a giant. Expecting the normal kindness that guests would receive, they let.
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Jacqueline Medina World Humanities Professor Brown March 13, 2011 Hospitality: Good or Bad? Hospitality as a theme in any literary work may not seem note-worthy. However, in Homer's epic poem, The Odyssey . it becomes fundamental to the telling of the story. In addition to hospitality in The Odyssey . the question of is it given out of fear of retribution from the gods or out of true generosity, is raised. What is also shown is the form of which it comes in, whether it be unwanted, given too much or taken advantage of. Homer illustrates the theme of hospitality through the actions of Menelaus, the Phaeacians, Nestor, Eumaious and the suitors. Early in, we are shown Telemakhos' hospitality when Athena comes to him disguised as Mentor. He sits Athena beside himself, offers food and drink, and only asks if he has information on his father. Civilized people in The Odyssey and even today demonstrate their quality of human beings in their hospitality, hoping that in return, should they be the arriving strangers or travellers, that they be treated in the same manner. It was also believed that turning away someone and not providing them this hospitality would result in some form of punishment from the gods. She then tells him to go out and find information on his father, Odysseus, and he soon sets sail for Pylos, land of Nestor. Entering Nestor’s palace, the crowd immediately greets him positively. "Nestor appeared.
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The Importance of Xenia in The Odyssey and it’s Consequences One of the most important themes in The Odyssey is the concept of xenia, which is the old Greek word for hospitality. In modern times, hospitality is something we rarely think of, and the first thing that comes to mind is the hotel industry, but in ancient Greece, xenia was not about hotels, or just about etiquette, it was a way of life with many benefits in a world that was still mostly savage. Xenia was more than just being polite to strangers. It was a set of rules and customs that defined the guest-host relationship between two individuals, two groups of people, or an individual and a group. Some basic rules of this relationship were that the guest could not insult the host, make demands, or refuse xenia. Additionally, the host could not insult the guest, fail to protect the guest, or fail to be as hospitable as possible. A certain level of trust would eventually have to be established. This trust was reinforced by both fear of word getting out that the host had provided improper xenia, and fear of retribution by the gods, since one never knew when a traveller might actually be a god in disguise, come to test the level of your xenia. All travellers were seen as sent by Zeus and under his protection, so giving proper xenia was also a way of showing respect for the gods, especially Zeus. The Odyssey by Homer may be viewed as a study in the laws of hospitality and is.
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Odyssey Review/Essay Questions 1.What aspects of social and political life in Homeric times are reflected in the “Odyssey ”? =The aspects in the social and political life in Homeric times that are reflected in the Odyssey are the leadership and hierarchy. These are depicted by kings, warriors and peasants who sometimes live un-heroic simple life.Other than that it shows the culture of the Greeks wherein if you will court a lady,you should bring gifts. 2.What is the purpose of the many allusion to the legend about the homecoming of Agamememnon? =Agamemnon had an unhappy homecoming. He was either blown off course and landed in the country of Aegisthos, or he came home to his own land to find Aegisthuswaiting for him. In either case, Aegisthus had become the lover of Clytemnestra, and the two together murdered Agamemnon and Cassandra shortly after their arrival. Aegisthus and Clytemnestra then ruled Agamemnon's kingdom, but were eventually killed by Agamemnon's son, Orestes (or by Orestes and Electra in some accounts). The homecoming of Agamemnon and its aftermath were favorite subjects for Greek tragedy.Basically, his unhappy homecoming was used to foretell the possibly unhappy homecoming awaiting the unhappy hero Odysseyus, although his wife does not marry any of the suitors, and his homecoming ends up being a relatively happy one. 3.What outstanding personal qualities enable Odysseus to survive all his.
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