Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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There are two types of formal assessments. First there are norm referenced test. These tests have stringent regulations. Schools are held accountable for implementing strict regulations regarding this test because these types of test are used to show the various levels of academic achievement from one student to the other. They are used as a model of comparison, sometimes between groups of students, or even schools of students.
One advantage of norm referenced test is that faculty, parents, and even students can see how the student scores side by side with other peers, or schools. Students could be examined against students of there same age, grade, or gender. (U.K, 2010) These tests are great tools for teachers to see where the children are at, what they have learned, or what they need to improve on. One disadvantage of these test are that they depend greatly on multiple choice questions. The reason for this is so the grading is done quickly using a machine rather than a person. (U.K, 2010) Testing in this fashion prohibits the student from being able to convey original answers. This kind of test only measures a wide range of knowledge, rather than what each student is individually capable of.
Next we have criterion referenced test. One advantage of these tests is that they are able to precisely measure a child's ability's in any given subject area. This test compares the student to a standard not like the norm referenced test which compares to other peer performances. (U, K, 2010) This test is able to show a child's expertise or lack there of in any given subject. One advantage of the criteria referenced is the fact that students are better prepared for the exam as they have been thoroughly taught all the materials that will be covered on this test. On the other hand standardized exams usually cover such a broad base of knowledge that it can hinder the child's ability to prepare for the exam. One disadvantage to criterion referenced test is that they can take a long time to prepare as the material must precisely cover each subject area.
Informal assessments are also a good tool for teachers. This type of assessment enables teachers to make give assessments that are able to give them timely results in order to help students progress. (Weaver, 2006) They can easily see where the students need extra attention and address accordingly. The first informal assessment that we will discuss is homework. Students are usually given homework that coincides with the lesson that was taught in class on any particular day. This is a great quick way to see whether or not the material covered in class was absorbed or not.
One advantage of this assessment is that it is a quick, efficient, and easily produced. Another advantage is that this type of assessment can be graded quickly. Students can simply trade papers in class in order to grade them. One disadvantage of this assessment is that some students do not do there homework. Therefore teachers can not assess there ability if they do not participate. Another disadvantage of this type of assessment would be that since this is done at home, teachers can not know if this is the students work or the work of someone else. Also students take textbooks home so it would be easy to just quickly look up the answer if it were unknown.
Experiments are another form of informal assessment. Experiments can provide much more to a classroom besides assessments. This can add quick fun and excitement for any lesson. They provide the student an opportunity to actually touch see or smell the lesson and have face to face interaction with it. One advantage of experiments is that the results are easily evaluated. If the students achieve the desired results upon completion of the experiment then they know the lesson. Another advantage is if the experiment is not successful, the teacher can review the lab explanations to find out what happened and correct the pupil. One disadvantage of experiments is that they can be costly. Especially if you have a large class, the materials alone will cost a great deal of money. Another disadvantage is that this type of assessment can take up lots of time. Teachers often have a hard time fitting just the lessons in without the experiments as well. (Navarete, 1990)
The next form of informal assessments will be writing samples. One advantage of writing samples is that they are a great way to demonstrate the proficiency of language art skills as well as many other subject areas. Writing samples provides the student with the opportunity to show uniqueness and individuality. This allows the teacher a chance to evaluate the depth of knowledge the student has in any given subject or lesson. (Navarete, 1990) Another advantage to writing samples is that you can not only evaluate the lesson that you are working on now, but teachers also have the chance to assess prior lessons through writing. One disadvantage of writing samples are that not all subjects can be assessed using this form. For example it would not be in the best interest to use a writing sample for a Science lesson. It would be next to impossible to evaluate student's achievements in Science through merely a writing sample. Maybe an experiment would be a better assessment tool. Another disadvantage would be that they are time consuming. Gathering thoughts and proofreading can take up large amounts of time. Students all need proper amounts of time in order to show there competencies through a writing sample.
Debates are a great way to properly assess students speaking skills. Writing samples could not assess oral skills but debates can. A debate is merely a discussion between two students that can clarify and also convey each student's knowledge in a subject area. One advantage of debates is that they can thoroughly show the teacher the depth and breadth of each student's knowledge. Another advantage is that it shows the teacher which students are comfortable with oral presentations, and which student's need more work. A disadvantage of debates is that they are hard to grade or assess because of the rapid pace at which the teacher has to try and keep up with during the debate. Sometimes important information can be unheard by graders. Another disadvantage is that oral debates can not completely cover every lesson plan, unless it is on oral speaking. (Weaver, 2006)
It would be feasible for teachers to use formal and informal assessments when assessing students, because as we discussed Science projects can not be assessed properly using only writing samples. It would not be smart either to use an experiment to teach a lesson on pilgrims. Debates although they are fun for students can only accurately assess oral presentation skills. Lastly homework can sometimes be ambiguous as teachers are not viewing who actually does the work or if students work has been pulled from a book. All this said it is wise for teachers to combine the two types and use various styles of assessing to accurately judge a student's level of knowledge. (Shellard, 2003)
Navarete, C. (1990). Informal Assessment in Educational Evaluations: Implications for Bilingual Education Programs. Retrieved November, 03, 2010 from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/pigs/pig3.htm
U.K. (2010) Technique: Norm-referenced (standardized) Tests. Retrieved November, 03, 2010, from http://www.coe.missouri.edu/
U.K. (2010) Technique: Objective-referenced/Criterion-referenced/Performance Tests. Retrieved November, 03, 2010 from
Shellard, E. (2003). Using Assessment to Promote Reading Instruction. Retrieved November, 03, 2010, from http://www.naesp.org
Weaver, B. (2006). Formal Versus Informal Assessments. Retrieved November, 03, 2010, from http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4452
Do you outline? Some writers I know can’t live without outlining, while some restrict its use to larger, more complex writing tasks. I belong with the former group, as outlining has proven to be an indispensable task (as much as my English writing software. actually) when it comes to helping me work in a fast and organized manner.
The type of outline you produce will generally depend on many factors, including:
There are only two general types of outlines – a rough one or a formal one. I personally prefer the “rough” variety, as it requires less effort to put together. For longer, more complicated pieces, though, it’s tough to get by without going the more formal route.
In this type of outline, the goal is to list down major supporting ideas in the order that you want to develop them. The aim is to have functional guideposts that you can follow while putting the actual piece together, rather than trying to draw them from memory. Most of the time, they take a format of a bulleted or numbered list.
The more formal kind of outlines, on the other hand, tend to offer more detail. Rather than a guide as to where ideas should be presented, they include actual supporting arguments, allowing them to replace most of your research notes during the writing process. They tend to look more complex in presentation, often using nested lists to facilitate the amount of details included.
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Assignments at very good examples of formal outlines for essays are pre-written, Edmonds writing rubrics are used to set. Esasys classification Writing a es says essay This type of essay is a very specific one as it deals with the Classification of organizing the logical connections in it. We have writers who can cover any subject examples of formal outlines for essays write the research examples of formal outlines for essays of different academic levels from High School to PhD.
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Outlines can be used to plan a project or to check whether a project is organized clearly and logically. The purpose of an informal preliminary (also called rough) outline is to help writers organize their thinking and information they have gathered. Some writers revise their outlines while they draft. Some writers revise their outlines after they have finished revising their papers.
A formal outline may guide or result from the final stages of a paper. In academic settings, formal outlines clarify the focus and organization as well as the scope of a paper. If you cannot outline your own paper, your readers might not be able to recognize the order of your thinking either.
Consider which methods of organization are most suitable to your topic, for example, you might use a combination of order of importance, causes and effects, problems and solutions, comparison-contrast, and classification. After you have drafted your outline, review it for logical organization and for accurate reflection of the subject.
Consult a college handbook for detailed explanations and examples of preliminary, informal, and formal outlines. The following tips are supplementary reminders for composing a Formal Outline using Modern Language Association (MLA) standards. which requires adherence to a conventional system of numbering.
Arrange your information logically and then arrange major and minor subdivisions of thought.
Number and letter your information according to the conventions of scholarship, spacing indented items to line up under the previous items. Remember that every subdivision must have at least two parts (you can't divide a pie into one part). Typical is the following arrangement:
Thesis statement: One or two complete sentences go here.
I. Major point 1 supporting thesis
A. Second level point supporting major point 1
B. Another second level point supporting major point 1
1. Third level point supporting second level point
2. Another third level point supporting second level point
a. Fourth level point supporting third level point
b. Another fourth level point supporting third level point
3. Another third level point supporting second level point
C. Another second level point supporting major point 1
II. Major point 2 supporting thesis
[repeat pattern above with as many levels and points as needed]
The topic headings should reflect the actual content of your notes and ideas.
Do not use the terms "introduction" or "conclusion"; instead, use "Significance of rehabilitation" or "History of lotteries" or "Patterns of abuse."
Do not use "example" or "case study"; instead, use "Norfolk jail's program" or "Colonial lotteries" or "the Newport News case."
Use one of the three major types of outline consistently.
Topic outline. In this most common and often preferred type of outline, each entry is a noun, noun phrase, or noun substitute (no verb phrases, no complete sentences).
Capitalize only the first word of each entry (except for proper nouns).
Use parallel structure within each subdivision.
Sentence outline. Some scholars prefer the completeness of a sentence outline in which each entry is a complete sentence. However, sentence outlines are more difficult to revise if you decide to reorganize.
Paragraph outline. Used primarily for long papers, the paragraph outline has a paragraph for every entry except for headings.
h. After you have drafted your outline, review it for logical organization and for accurate reflection of the subject.
The following example illustrates a formal topic outline with page format set up according to MLA guidelines (see Guidelines for Academic Papers for details).
for educational purposes only
developed and copyright © May 2001 byD. Reiss
modified and copyright © 8 March 2003 by D. Reiss
The invention of the bicycle: Was it the greatest invention ever?
"There has not been a more civilizing invention in the memory of the present generator than the invention of the bicycle open to all classes, enjoyed by both sexes and ages"- Lord Balour (Leek&Leek9.) he bicycle invented in 1816 was to become one of the greatest inventions still used today. A small town blacksmith in Germany had an idea for an invention the people though was crazy. That idea ended up being something used daily today 185 year later. One mans simple idea 185 years ago has become a major part of today’s culture. The Bicycle was one of the most influential inventions of transportation in the world.
The Bicycle in its first forms looked nothing like today’s idea of the bicycle. Its original designs were more similar to a “hobbyhorse” than a bicycle. The Draisine had two wheels in tandem along with a crude steering mechanism. This original idea was left open for other additions. From simple things like rubber tires to most importantly brakes. The Velocipede was a little later in time than the Draisine but still had major issues. They had extremely large front wheels and minute rear wheels. This caused for the super high center of gravity along with almost impossible mounting and dismounting.
In a German blacksmith shop around 1816, a man was to invent something that was to become a major part of today’s culture. The original idea was to have a machine.
That would allow a person to travel a long distance with little energy. Only after it was built, it was something that would take a large amount of energy to go on flat or a slight uphill for a short coast down a hill. After the invention was refined a little, it could almost get to the idea of what Drais had. It was used for long distance travel with a lot of downhill coasting. The people of Karlsruhe wanted the Barons invention banned from the sidewalks and the streets. On January 12 1818, the baron received this order, “ We, by the grace of God, duke of Baden, grant Duke of Zahringer, grant to Karl, Baron Von Drais for his invention of tread machine an invention patent for ten years duration that no one can copy of have copied in the land of grand duchy, or shall use this on public street or places without first, having settles with the inventor about it and have gotten proof of it from him.How to Cite this Page
"Inventiong Of The Bicycle, Including Formal Outline." 123HelpMe.com. 25 Feb 2017
In Paris Louis Deneur took out a patent calling the barons invention a Velocipede. Another name from the French was Draisienne. During the year of 1790, people of a France claimed the Chevalier d Sivnae had produced a similar machine. Similar forms of transportation have been known hundreds of years before Chevalier d Sivnae was even born. The Barons design was similar to Chevaliers with two wheels in tandem but the barons improved with the addition of a steering mechanism. Another French man Nice’ phore Niepce, recognized the value of a steer able two-wheeled vehicle.
Without the Barons invention of the bike, history would bet totally different. The right brothers earned their living working in a bicycle repair shop in Dayton Ohio. With them working in this Bicycle repair shop gave them enough money for them to build their first flying machine in 1936. A poem entitled “the campers at Kitty Hawk” claimed that the flying contraption was held together with “Arnteins Bicycle cement”. The movie “ Bicycle thief
Would have nothing to steal and over 800 million Chinese people would have a different mode of transportation.
After many years of the original design of the bicycle, very few changes were made. The most common change was changing of the wheel sizes to increase speed. But all bicycles had the new invention of a type of pedal drive similar to that of a train patented by Kirpatric Macmillan. The idea of using arms to connect the pedals to the spindle on the front hub allowed for a larger wheelbase without moving the rider toward the front. With the train drive style of pedals also allowed for the rider to use les force and still travel on level or slight uphill that a person with the crank arms connected directly to the spindle.
In 1860, Thomas McCall improved on Kirpatric Macmillan’s additions by added a rear brake. This brake allowed for a man to save money on expensive leather shoes and boots when coasting down hills. Philip Fischer devised a process for making large amounts of steel balls. These steel balls were then used in the wheels, cranks and steering mechanisms of the bicycle in the form of ball bearings.
During the year of 1861, father and son Pierre and Ernest Michaux were baby carriage makers. After repairing many carriages, they began to affix cranks to the carriages. This machine would become to be known are the velocipede. In a time period of one year they produced 144 velocipedes. After three years they were producing up to four hundred velocipedes. But a man Pierre Lallement received the first patent on the bicycle even thought the Michaux family invented it.
Many years after the Michaux/Lallement bicycle was first made it became known as the “boneshaker”. During that time, only men were allowed to ride bicycles. It was considers a Melensky 4
vehicle of masculinity. After Franco-Prussian war, the bicycle business regained it status and people were looking for more luxurious bicycles. Many manufactures were making bicycles with ebony wheels, ivory handlebars and grips, backrests or anything that could add comfort or fanciness. In 1872 the invention of spoked wheels reduced weight and softened the ride slightly. The spokes were thin pieces wire that was threaded through the hub, then the rim back to the hub. Moving the hub’s flanges apart produced the tension. This idea was first patented and used my G. F. Bauer for large diameter wheels. This was the second most useful invention for the bicycle next to the brake.
After 1870 the trend toward tricycles increased. One of the greatest reasons was the ease of use for women. The other great reason was the safety from the stability. The huge front wheel made it very unstable and difficult to get on it. Most tricycles were found at heath resorts, they became known as bath chairs. The name was probably given for Bath, a famous heath spa in England. After the original idea of having to rear wheels and a single front wheel, it was found that on large wheel on the one side and two smaller wheels for steering on the other side was a lot more maneuverable. By 1877 there were a lot of tricycles being manufactured. From 1877 to 1878 there were fifty-seven patents granted for tricycles. One of the most useful patents was the two large side wheels along with a small rear wheel for steering. This allowed for safety incase on a crash, the driver would fall forward and not into moving wheels. The quadrant tricycle was the first tricycle to use a front wheel for steering along with handlebars, and a chain drive. The omnicycle patented in 1879 by T. Butler used leather belts and different sized pulleys as gears for bad roads or hills attemped to make things easier. The end result was harder to change the pulleys while moving then it was to just use
one constant speed.
James Starley patented the “ribbon” front wheel. The ribbon wheel used narrow brass strips for spokes. For this Starley become known as “the father of the bicycle industry”. James Starley’s Ariel had a large front wheel and a small back wheel with a saddle placed close to the handlebars. The greatest part of his Ariel was the innovation of a speed gear. This allowed the front wheel to rotate two spins for every turn of the crank. This allowed the rider to travel faster and farther with less energy. In 1873 Mr. James Moore rode at a speed of fourteen and a half miles an hour. This created the world record for speed on a bicycle. Along with the “Ribbon” wheel comes another improvement to spokes. The adjustable nipple type spoke. These works by taking a strait piece of thin metal and attaching part of it to the hub and threading the other end. The rim contains holes which adjustment nipple passes through. By tightening and loosening the nipples you can straiten and strengthen the wheel.
A matter of safety was increased in 1978 by the use of curved fork legs and an angled headtube. This put the line of contact with the front wheel making for a safer ride. By 1890, the bicycles of the time resembled that of today’s bicycles. In 1888 companies were adding springs to the seats, forks, and even handlebars for a more comfortable rides. These only cause problems; they made the ride even worse in some conditions. The addition of the pneumatic tire made what was a terribly painful ride now a lot comfortable.
After 185 years the Bicycle has undergone many changes. From the minor addition of two equal size wheels to the major addition of brakes. But the same idea still is there. To make a form of transportation that’s simple, fast, easy and fun. In 1816 to October 24th 2001 the bicycle has changed and is becoming a bigger part of our culture. The bicycle was one of the most influential inventions of transportation in the world.
The Invention of the bike: was it one of the greatest inventions ever?
Thesis: The bicycle was one of the most influential inventions of transportation in the world.
“There has not been a more civilizing invention in the memory of the present generation than the invention of the bicycle, open to all classes, enjoyed by both sexes and ages-Lord Balfour (Leek&Leek9.) The bicycle, invented in 1816 was to become one of the greatest inventions that s still used today. A small town blacksmith in Germany had an idea for an invention that people thought was crazy. The idea ended up being something used daily, even today 185 years later. One man’s simple idea 185 years ago has become a major part of today’s culture. The bicycle was on of the most influential inventions of transportation in the world.
I. The bicycles first counter parts.
A. The velocipede/ Draisine was the first two-wheeled steer-able bicycle.
II. Baron Von Drais was a German Blacksmith.
A. Baron Von Drais invented the first bicycle in 1816.
B. Baron Von Drais was given the patent on the first bicycle in 1818. III. Frenchmen Chevalier De Sivnae and Nice’ phore Niepce were also have said to have invented the bicycle before Baron Von Drais.
A. Cheval De Sivnae was said to have produced a similar machine around 1790.
VI. More and better additions to the original bicycle.
A. Scottish blacksmith Kirpatric Macmillan invented the first pedal operated bicycle.
B. In 1860 Thomas McCall improved on Macmillan’s design by the addition of a rear brake.
Conclusion: After 185 years the Bicycle has undergone many changes. From the minor addition of two equal size wheels to the major addition of brakes. But the same idea still is there. To make a form of transportation that’s simple, fast, easy and fun. In 1816 to October 24th 2001 the bicycle has changed and is becoming a bigger part of our culture. The bicycle was one of the most influential inventions of transportation in the world.
Leek, Sybil, and Stephen Leek. The Bicycle that curious invention. Nashville/New York. Thomas Nelson inc, 1975.