There are many definitions …. It is the reading of books which refreshes us when clouds of sorrow darken our lives. Discovering Ideas Handbook. 8 The Research Essay -- Reading v. The author's comments: Argument reading essays essay written for my english class
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. " Others call it "close reading," or "active reading," or a host of other terms One of the things that we do not talk about reading essays when we talk about writing is the sound and scent reading essays and sensuality of it, the scratching and hammering and tapping, the. com, the largest free essay community Free Reading papers, essays, and research papers. Spread the word about Read Print. Reading is a mental process. 1. What this handout is about. 4. Tweet
While it may be tempting to dismiss these reactionary worries as empirically ill-informed, I think we should resist. There is, at the end of the day, something soul-shakingly serious about these feelings. The grandiose concepts they invoke – like “the place of humankind in nature” – are banalified and overused now, but I think it’s worth taking them seriously. If computers can do things that we thought only human beings could do, can we continue to think of ourselves as unique? If computers can carry out operations that we thought only the human mind could carry out, are we forced to think of our minds as essentially mechanical? I know these are heady questions, but I don’t mean to ask them as an invitation to fatuous navel-gazing. I just mean that when I honestly contemplate computers reading essays, they just sprout up, as insistent as nettles.Read Essays Online - Read Print
After 3 decades of reading essays and writing about them in places like the US News, I’ve discovered a few things that have made me question my ‘’wisdom’. But I do have a formula.
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2. Read the essay over once, quickly, looking for the main idea, for what the essay is about in general, and for what the author seems to be saying. Don't get bogged down in details. (If you come to an unfamiliar word, circle it but go on reading).Tweet. These lessons span colonial to Cold War America and. You may also sort these by color rating or. 8 The Research reading essays Essay -- Reading v. The ability to read is highly valued. Learning to Read Research The National Right to Read Foundation gathers articles and studies from across the nation—and sometimes the world—to create a com
I have midterms this Wednesday. Eep. Fortunately, I have to write a D*I*Y Planner article, so I can put off worrying about my test. ;) Here's the template I use for studying for exams. Maybe you can pass the tips on to other students, or use it for more effective, more active reading.
Okay, it's not a _real template, because it's just a matter of folding. I fold my note paper into two columns (2/3, 1/3). The left column is for notes, the right column for higher-level cues. I fold a narrow column on the left side of the paper. This is for page numbers.
Then I read the textbook. (Can't avoid doing that. Tough. ) Here's the trick: I write down questions.
Not facts, not summaries, but questions. This prevents me from lulling myself into a false sense of security. It's easy to look at a statement and say, "Yeah, I know that." Questions force me to think and help me practice explaining concepts. I then answer the question out loud while reading the textbook.
So I go through the entire textbook. At the end of every sub-chapter and chapter, I review my questions. I answer the questions either out loud or on another piece of paper. Saying and hearing the answer or writing and reading the answer helps reinforce it in my mind. I also quickly review all the questions once I reach the end of the book. (Well, theoretically, I would. I haven't gotten to this point yet.) I can check my answers by looking them up again. That's when the page numbers become handy!
What's the rightmost column for? Well, questions that closely follow the textbook make sure I know the details, but I might miss the big picture. It's easy to answer a detailed question because it's focused, but if I need to combine knowledge from different parts of the book, I might forget to include something relevant. The rightmost column helps me summarize chapters into key insights, and thus key questions. To review those, I can simply fold the paper over or hide the other columns.
Why not do this for books as well? If you're reading a book, actively read it. Ask yourself questions. Make yourself think of the important points. Give yourself a quiz afterwards. You'll retain the information much better, and you can use your question sheet to refresh your memory too.
Have fun! Now I have to get back to studying.
Submitted by ndench on Wed, 2005-10-26 07:43.
Interesting article. One thing I am wondering about the questions: at the point when you write them down, do you know the answers to them? That is, as you read something, do you write down the question which has just been answered by the bit you just read, or do you just write down the any qyuestions you would expect to be answered by the book?
I'd presume the former, but it's not quite straight in my head.
Submitted by sachac on Sat, 2005-11-05 19:57.
When I research, I write down questions before I read papers or books. When I study for an exam, I need to make sure I've covered all the material (not just what I remember from class), so I write questions after I read the answers. =)
Submitted by Vkaryl on Thu, 2005-10-27 01:32.
When I read a book, I'm reading for escape. The only books I read any more are fiction: fantasy or sci-fi. If I ask a bunch of questions about the "world building" etc. I'm going to pull myself out of the escape.
There's no reason to "actively" read escapist fiction. In fact, I'm not sure there's any reason to "actively" read biography or autobiography. Textbooks are another thing entirely of course, but I'm not about to be bothered with textbooks ever again.
NOTHING is foolproof to a sufficiently talented fool! [Silvermoon's Law]
Submitted by roninj on Thu, 2005-10-27 05:16.
I know what you're talking about, because I sometimes read like that too. It's reading more for immersion into the plot and the world then to gain any kind of intellectual understanding. That being said, there is a role for active reading in both fiction and nonfiction. When reading a narrative (be it fiction or nonfiction), there are interesting subtexts that can be missed if one doesn't stay alert. When reading position papers, it enriches the experience to actively analyze arguments as they are put forth.
Now, all this talk of questions has made me curious. I wonder how well the author of this article has done on his exams using this technique. ;)
Submitted by sachac on Sun, 2005-10-30 22:11.
My exams were fine. I felt happy about my amount of preparation, and any points I missed were due more to exam-time stress than to my not being able to remember anything. =)
(By the way, I'm female. <grin> Catches most people by surprise, that. )
Submitted by joffrey.ph on Thu, 2005-10-27 07:44.
Nice article. Thanks for the tip. I don't usually read that way, but I sometimes do that when I want to force something to myself. Writing questions instead of actual facts is a neat trick. Also, it would highly increase active reading if you try writing on the sides of the book's pages (if possible) with comments like "I don't believe this paragraph", "This is a big, damn lie", "This statement proves the author is crazy" or "What? I spent x dollars just to learn this?!" :-D
Submitted by Al Mac (not verified) on Thu, 2005-10-27 20:16.
joffrey.ph, if that's all you're writing in the margins, then perhaps you are reading the wrong book. Either that or you could be in comp. lit!
Submitted by sachac on Sun, 2005-10-30 22:13.
I prefer keeping my book notes together (and my books fairly clean), so I don't write in the margins of my books. I keep index cards handy so that I can write page numbers and notes on them, which lets me quickly grab interesting snippets from a book. =)
Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2005-10-31 00:10.
I regret marking up not all, but one too many beautiful books in university. What was I thinking?
This Research Paper Increasing Motivation in Active Reading and Studying and other 61,000+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on ReviewEssays.com
Autor: reviewessays • May 12, 2011 • Research Paper • 1,580 Words (7 Pages) • 328 Views
Increasing motivation and active reading
There are many patterns and beliefs dealing with motivation that can limit academic success. I had an issue with motivation. and how to motivate myself to study and actively read. I felt that I was not willing to maximize myself to my fullest potential. I had some difficulty managing my motivation because it was hard to measure and I was not never really sure if I was increasing my motivation or not. Motivation has impacted me by helping me learn and retain information better and thus making me a better student. My motivation towards studying had also impacted those around me because when I sit down to study, they also get motivated to study too.
Wolters (1998) collected self-reported data from 115 college students with the average age of 19.1. All participants were volunteers and enrolled in an introductory psychology course. The study was about researching three questions. What strategies do students use to regulate their motivation. Is the use of these strategies dependent on contextual factors? And how is motivational regulation related to other aspects of self-regulated learning and environment. The strategies for regulating motivation was assessed by using an open-ended questionnaire with a short answer question.
The results say that students regulate their level of motivation by using a variety of strategies, including cognitive, volitional and motivational (Wolters 1998). Many students said that they intended to block out distractions, focus their attention or they will "just do it." The results found that self-regulated learners adapt their strategies to fit the situational demands and provided a better understanding of the motivational problems that there are. The results also found that students regulating themselves is a more effective way of teaching them to be more self-regulated (Wolters 1998).
Seeking help is a great way to learn. but some students will not seek it. The second
source investigates this problem, two studies were conducted, one that established that students would rather get help from their teachers instead of outside sources, and a second one that established classes that teach you to use outside sources will have students that use these outside sources instead of just the teachers ( Karabenick 2004). The results yielded that classes that encourage students to participate in class discussions and activities will produce students to ask for help when needed. The bottom line is if you teach students to use outside sources then they will use it more.
Rewards and incentives have become an American way of life, but they are actually not appropriate because they undermine the genuine interest and diminish esteemed performance (Schrof 1993). Study after study shows that people tend to do worse on things and give up more easily when a reward is promised. The problem is the assumption that humans can be effectively conditioned, but they can not be pushed and pulled to doing the right thing, it is ultimately their own choice (Schrof 1993). A group of researchers did studies on children who were given magic markers, and were super excited, but within weeks had lost interest. Another study found that children who were given rewards for reading, read more than those not receiving rewards. But when the program ended, they stopped reading all together, and thus read less than those not offered rewards. Motivation researchers know society won't transform itself overnight and might never stop from being reward-driven. But they hope to produce dedicated people without the use of rewards ( Schrof 1993).
For my project I did a Lassi module to investigate and identify my target behavior then I
researched my problem behavior at the library. I read and printed out three articles that worked well with my project. I then filled out a contract and meet with my teacher about my project plan.
Then I observed myself in the baseline week ,keeping track of my behavior, then in the next two weeks I tried to change my behavior to bo more motivated by keeping track of my active reading and studying. The hypothesized result is that if I work harder and reward myself then I will be more motivated.
My weekly goal is to actively read and get my studying done so that I do well on tests. In my baseline I am tracking how many times I am motivated to actually sit down and really study. I measure my study time in increments of 15 to 30 minutes or a hour. I wrote down every time
I was not motivated to get anything done.
In the antecedent I got all my materials out and made sure all distractions were taken care of. I tried to always find a nice and quiet place to actively read and study because I knew I would not retain any information if I did not. For the behavior I tried to do my best and because I thought about how much I want to stay in school and do well I actively participated in what I was doing. Sometimes I would catch myself. not paying attention, so I would then modify my behavior and got my work done.
For the consequences. I rewarded myself by getting to hanging out with friends and eating out more. Also the fact that I was going to do well on my tests helped
Mapping the Territory
Reading is an activity integral to the writing process. You may not associate reading with the difficult task of writing a college essay. After all, it seems like a passive activity, something you might do at a café or sitting in an easy chair. But while you can read solely for entertainment, soaking in the plot of a good novel or familiarizing yourself with the latest celebrity gossip, reading also drives the act of writing itself, from the earliest stages onward. Reading can—and will—make you a better writer.
But first, you have to learn how to read in a whole new way, because college-level work requires you to read actively, a skill much different from the kind of reading you have practiced since elementary school. Active reading implies not only attention paid to the text, but also consideration and response. An active reader explores what she reads; she approaches the text as though she has entered an unknown territory with the intention of drawing a map. Indeed, the difference between passive reading and active reading is like the difference between watching a nature documentary and hiking through the wilderness. The film, although entertaining, doesn’t require much exertion from the viewer. By contrast, the hiker has to navigate the trail: she must look out for hazards, read trail signs, and make informed decisions, if she hopes to make it back home.
Before you can write a successful essay, you must first understand the territory you’re about to explore. Luckily, other writers have already scouted the area and logged reports on the terrain. These missives—the articles and books your professors will ask you to read—sketch their findings. But understanding these documents can be a daunting task, unless you know how to interpret them. The following sections detail the most essential strategies for active reading.A Two-Way Street: Reading as Conversation
Think of every text your instructor assigns as one half of a conversation between you and the writer. Good conversations achieve a balance between listening and responding. This give-and-take process drives human discourse. While one participant speaks, the other listens. But while the listener appears passive on the surface, he’s most likely already preparing his response. He may evaluate what his partner says, testing it for how closely it matches his own ideas, accepting or rejecting part or all of the statement. When he does respond, he expresses his reaction, or asks a question about something he doesn’t yet understand. Active reading mirrors this process closely. An active reader “listens” to the text, evaluating what the writer says, checking to see if it matches or differs from his current understanding of the issue or idea. He asks pertinent questions if something remains unclear, looking for answers in subsequent sections of the text. His final goal, of course, is to make a statement of his own, in the form of the essay he will eventually produce.Retracing Your Steps: Read Every Text (at least) Twice
In fact, reading is in many ways better than conversation, because, like writing, it is recursive: you can revisit a text over and over, whereas the spoken word, unless recorded, disappears into the past, often along with part—or all—of the message the speaker was attempting to convey. When you read, you can move forward and backward in time, making sure you’ve captured every nuance. You should read the text more than once, first for a general understanding, and then for a detailed analysis; your first read-through may raise questions only a second reading can reveal the answers to.Marking the Trail: Annotation
An active reader views the text as a living document, always incomplete. She reads with pen in hand, ready to write her observations, her questions, and her tentative answers in the margins. We call this annotation, the act of writing notes to oneself in the blank spaces of the page. It’s not the same as underlining or highlighting, neither of which promotes active reading. A simple line underneath a passage contains no information; it merely indicates—vaguely—that you found a certain passage more important than the surrounding text. Annotation, on the other hand, is a record of your active responses to the text during the act of reading. A simple phrase summarizing a paragraph, a pointed question, or an emphatic expression of approval or disbelief all indicate spirited engagement with the text, which is the cornerstone of active reading.Pace Yourself: Know Your Limitations and Eliminate Distractions
You can’t hike the Appalachian Trail in a day. Similarly, you can’t expect to sustain active reading longer than your mind and body will allow. Active reading requires energy and attention as well as devotion. Short rest periods between readings allow you to maintain focus and deliberate on what you have learned. If you remain diligent in your reading practice, you’ll find that you can read actively for longer periods of time. But don’t push yourself past the point at which you stop paying attention. If your mind begins to wander, take ten minutes away from the text to relax. Ideally, you should read gradually, scheduling an hour or two every day for reading, rather than leaving your assignments until the last minute. You can’t hope to gain full or even partial comprehension of a text with a deadline looming overhead.
When and where you read can be as important as how long you read. Plan your reading sessions for hours when your mental energy is at its height—usually during daylight hours. Likewise, you should select an optimal location, preferably one free of distractions. Loud music, the flickering of a TV screen, and the din of conversation tend to divert your attention from the task at hand. Even a momentary distraction, like a quick phone call or a friend asking a question, can interrupt the conversation you are having with your assigned text.
For Bonus Points: Make a Reference Summary
How: Take the notes you made in Step 3, format them to make them all pretty, and then store them in your location of choice.
Why: Let's call a spade a spade-when you need to quickly reference something, tracking down the book, finding the information in the book, and then applying the information in the book is a pain in the ass. When that many steps are involved, you probably just won't bother. But if you have a quick reference summary located in Evernote or a Word doc or even printed out and put in a folder or binder, you reduce those steps and make it waaaay easier to actually reference what you learned. Which helps to keep your skills sharp and lessens the likely hood that you'll forget the material you learned. Now, it might sound overwhelming to essentially be going through a book 3 times, but look at it this way:
Have you ever sat down to read a textbook and take notes on it on the first read? Not only does it seem to take FOREVER, but how hard is it to focus? How hard is it to retain that information? How long do you actually have to block aside to do that?
Now, look at the 3 steps again. How long would it take you to skim a chapter? 10 minutes? On average? How long would it take you to casually read a chapter and not worry about anything, but just casually reading through it? Not that long-especially since you've already take a few minutes to run through the headlines and have some semblance of an idea on what it's about? So, by the time you're sitting down to do the traditional "text book" reading, you don't need as much time (you already have a pretty good general idea of the material), you don't need to do as much thinking (since you've been processing this stuff in the back of your mind, you already have connections, ideas, etc.). and you don't need nearly as much focus because you've already gone through it. When you look at it that way, it all seems pretty reasonable and do-able. You might be incredibly busy, but you still can find a few small chunks of time to do those small steps, whereas you probably wouldn't be able to find the time to do the traditional textbook reading way. Not to mention, you'll retain the material better, understand the concepts on a deeper level, and better be able to actually apply it to your life. And isn't that the whole point of reading after all?