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Technical Education Essay Quotations Citations

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APA Citations Transcript of APA Citations

APA Citations and References
The treasure at the end of your sentence.
Quoting A Source
There are a few standard ways to quote a source. look in each circle to find out more.
Paraphrasing a Source
Citing Quoted and Paraphrased Content
For all research, the two most important things to include in every citation are:

1). Author(s’) last name(s)

2). Date of publication
Formatting In-Text Citations and References
A Map to Using APA Citations
Signal phrase + that (no comma) + “quotation”
Elena Poniatowska, celebrated journalist and author, admitted that “in Latin America, we write because this is the only way we know not to disappear, and in order to bear testimony about those who disappear because of politics or hunger” (87).
Quotations need a third item. the Page #
(Smith, 2007, p. 23).

(Smith, Brown, & Jones, 2005, para. 4).
According to the Ashford Guide for Academic and Career Success, “When you paraphrase, you follow much more closely the author’s original presentation, but you still restate it in your own words and sentence structures” (299).
Signal phrase + comma + “quotation”
In her essay, “The Crummy First Draft,” Lamott emphasized, “Almost all good writing begins with terrible first efforts. You need to start somewhere. Start by getting something—anything—down on paper” (188).
Complete sentence + colon + “quotation”
David Sedaris commented on the humorous difference in the rites of passage between his youngest brother and the rest of the Sedaris siblings: “While our departures had been relatively painless, Paul’s was like releasing a domestic animal into the wild” (264).
Original Source
The feminization of clerical work and teaching by the turn of the century reflected the growth of business and public education. It also reflected limited opportunities elsewhere. Throughout the nineteenth century, stereotyping of work by sex had restricted women’s employment. Job options were limited; any field that admitted women attracted a surplus of applicants willing to work for less pay than men would have received. The entry of women into such fields—whether grammar school teaching or office work—drove down wages.
Student Paraphrase
According to Nancy Woloch in Women and the American Experience: A Concise History, the “feminization” of jobs in the nineteenth century had two major effects: a lack of employment opportunities for women and inadequate compensation for positions that were available. Thus, while clerical and teaching jobs indicated a boom in these sectors, women were forced to apply for jobs that would pay them less than male workers were paid (170).
Always list author last name and then the date of publication.
(Smith, 2005).

(Smith, Anderson, Jones, & Brown, 2001).
Woloch, Nancy. Women and the American Experience: A Concise History. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002.
Here are some quick tips for formatting in-text citations and references
Citations Directly in the Sentence
The author (year of publication) said that he believes…

1) Smith (2004) stated…
2) Norm Johnson (1999) said, “I believe that adults should go back to school” (p. 132).

Citations at the end of the sentence
Research shows that…young (Author last name only, year)

1) Research shows that…young (Smith, 2005).
Common References: Book with One or Two Authors
Dornan, E. A. (2006). The Longwood reader (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.

Dornan, E. A. & Finnegan, J. M. (2006). The Longwood reader (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.
Rosinski, P. (2006, January). The impact of the internet on our moral lives [Electronic version].
Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 21 (1), 109-112.

McNamara, C. (2007). Public and media relations. Retrieved May 1, 2007, from http://www.managementhelp.org
The period is placed AFTER the citation

Quotation marks occur BEFORE the citation
Common References: Journal Articles Published Online or in Print.
Common References: Articles or Document from a Web Page

Other articles

Ensure Technical and Academic Rigor of Programs

Ensure Technical and Academic Rigor of Programs Continue reading.

Ensure Technical and Academic Rigor of Programs


Effective career and technical education programs clearly articulate course outcomes and align content with national or state occupational skill standards. These standards, endorsed by business and industry, are designed to prepare students with skills that reflect job market requirements and address all aspects of the industry, not just skills required for single jobs. Curricula developed around these standards offer teachers a variety of strategies for improving standards in their classrooms.

Ohio has developed a set of cluster guides based on the Integrated Technical and Academic Competencies (ITACS) that employers have identified as necessary for work: solving problems and thinking skillfully, communicating effectively, applying technology, and so forth. The curriculum for each of these cluster guides follows the same format. Each begins with a workplace scenario, engages students in a problem-solving approach to learning, and integrates technical and academic competencies from state and national standards. Through the scenarios outlined in the guides, students are led to construct knowledge by engaging in learning experiences and problem-solving activities that have value beyond the classroom (Vocational Instructional Materials Laboratory 1999).

Projects that use the context of the workplace and the community to teach academic and technical skills offer another strategy for ensuring program rigor. Students learn best in the context of real life experiences. Sussex Technical High School in Georgetown, Delaware; William H. Turner Technical Arts High School in Miami; and Michael E. DeBakey High School for Health Professionals in Houston are three schools that combine rigorous academic coursework with career and technical education through hands-on activities set in real-world contexts (Roberts 1999). In this way, "students can combine what they're learning in the field or laboratory with basic writing, science, and math skills" (p. 22).

"Curriculum integration, contextual and applied learning, tech prep, and team teaching have increased the academic rigor of career and technical education disciplines" (Lozada 1999, p. 16). Traditional instructional roles, however, do not support these strategies for applying academic and technical understandings to real-world problems. To involve students in learning experiences that are situated in certain physical and social contexts and require interaction with other people, teachers must assume the role of coach or mentor, encouraging students to create their own knowledge from experiences beyond the classroom. When CTE instruction supports what is known about intelligence, brain development, cognition and learning, it gives credence to initiatives that integrate academic education with career and technical education (Reese 2002).

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Engage in Collaboration in School and in the Community

School change requires collaboration among teachers of different disciplines. As part of the High Schools That Work initiative of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), academic and career and technical education teachers work together to plan and deliver integrated instruction. At Wren High School in South Carolina, for example, faculty from different disciplines worked together to plan and implement a project that engaged students in producing a televised school news program and another in which math and social studies students conducted job shadowing in each of four career cluster majors (SREB 1996).

Collaboration with the community in creating learning experiences that engage students in real-life, hands-on active learning is an essential element of successful CTE programs. Community agencies and businesses can serve as sites for service learning projects and work-based learning opportunities such as internships. At Crescent Valley High School in Corvallis, Oregon, students in an advanced field biology class conducted an 8-month study of Bald Hill Park's biological and cultural resources (SREB 2000). The project was designed to combine academic study and community service. Mentors from the community worked with students as they investigated such topics as birds, mammals, insects, geology, cultural history, streams, and plants. After their experiences, students wrote a guide highlighting the information they discovered in their investigations. In support of this project and its outcomes, sections of guide were displayed at the park entrance.

Business-school partnerships have tremendous potential for helping teachers to ensure that the skills being taught are relevant to today's workplace. Brotherton (2001) presents examples of school partnerships with private high-tech companies. In the Stillwater (Oklahoma) School District, a high-tech initiative has resulted in the installation of a huge fiber optic network that connects school buildings, city buildings, and the hospital. "A software company entrepreneur donated $40,000 toward putting a wireless local area network in the high school and purchasing 40 Dell Laptop computers" (p. 19). Students use the laptops in courses on website design, where they learn hypertext markup language and engage in real-world projects, such as building websites for the school and community groups.

Keep Current through Professional Development Experiences

Participating in staff development is one way that academic and CTE teachers can work together to learn new roles. "In an SREB survey of 8,000 career tech teachers last year, about 45 percent said they needed to update their own mathematics skills before they could teach rigorous math content in the context of their specialities" (Lozada 1999, p. 18).

Some teachers are taking advantage of work-based experiences as a means of gaining knowledge of jobs and industry needs, connecting with employers, acquiring equipment and resources, and enhancing their credibility in the community (Ries 1999). "Kathleen Steudle, a drafting teacher at Farmington High School in Farmington, Michigan, interned at Ford Motor Company and toured local industries through a 'Technology in the Workplace' course offered in cooperation with Eastern Michigan University" (p. 16). Through this and a job shadowing experience at an architectural firm, she learned new technology, gained insights into the latest construction techniques and materials, and observed real problems the firms encountered that she could modify for use in the classroom.

Other means of keeping current in the midst of constant change is through internships, externships, and industry tours. Each of these experiences gives teachers insight into workplace skills needs, specific ways in which academic skills are used on the job, and a variety of real-life applications that they can bring back to the classroom.

The Internet is another avenue for enhancing teacher education, as well as offering an alternative teacher licensure program. The Ohio State University has developed graduate-level courses in career and technical education for Web-based delivery. Having technology infused into a teacher education program contributes to teachers' technical skill development. "By completing a Web-enhanced course, they are gaining pedagogical knowledge associated with teaching while developing important technological skills" (Zirkle 2002, p. 25).

Joining professional associations, networking with other teachers, and reading professional literature are additional professional development strategies that can enhance a teacher's ability to deliver instruction in new ways. Technology can facilitate many of these linkages as well. For example, by becoming distance learners, teachers can improve their own technological skills as well as learn ways to use technology as a teaching tool (Maurer 2000).

Extend Learning beyond Classroom Walls

Students should have opportunities to work with adults other than teachers in community and work settings. Projects must be meaningful to the student and ones that an adult might tackle at work or in the community. A schoolwide project at Caldwell Parish High School in Columbia, Louisiana, "strengthened connections between vocational and academic disciplines and helped students and teachers to focus on the local forestry industry, one of the community's two largest employers. Students in the project learned about job opportunities, industrial practices, forestry equipment, and the uses of timber and timber products. They conducted research and used mathematics and science in solving actual problems (SREB 2000, p. 15). The project, supported by local businesses, brought foresters into the classroom to make presentations about their jobs and places of work (ibid.).

At Statesboro High School in Statesboro, Georgia, the family and consumer science curriculum engages students in a community childcare and preschool program to give them hands-on, workplace experience. Enrolled in this lab program are four-year-olds from the surrounding community who are accepted on a first-come, first-served basis. The program is designed to help students who have an interest in working with children to learn real-life applications of child development strategies, food and nutrition science, lesson planning skills, and communication strategies. It gives these potential teachers an awareness of the importance of coaching, supervision, and guidance, roles that are increasingly important in their field (Thaler-Carter 2000).

New delivery systems can also extend student experiences beyond classroom walls. The Center for Applied Academics (CFAA) in British Columbia <http://www.awal.ctt.bc.ca/> features the Applications of Working and Learning website, which provides lesson plan examples from CFAA materials as well as ideas and feedback from teachers who sign up for free (Lozada 1999, p. 18).

Effecting change in teaching and learning requires more than a name change. It requires teachers to be open minded about adopting new ways to teach and to be receptive to the idea that not all students learn in the same way. Because the construction of knowledge is directly tied to real life experiences in personal and social settings, teachers need to look toward proven practices for enhancing student learning and engaging in their own professional development. They must ensure that their programs are up to date and direct students' academic and technical skill development to current and future workplace requirements.

Brotherton, P. "Winning Partnerships." Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers 76, no. 4 (April 2001): 18-21.

Lozada, M. "Adding More to the Mix." Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers 74, no. 6 (September 1999): 16-19, 57.

Maurer, M. J. Professional Development in Career and Technical Education. In Brief: Fast Facts for Policy and Practice No. 7. Columbus: National Dissemination Center for Career and Technical Education, the Ohio State University, 2000. (ED 448 318) <http://www.nccte.com/publications/infosynthesis/index.html>

Reese, S. "Contextual Teaching and Learning." Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers 77, no. 1 (January 2002): 40-41.

Ries, E. "Fit for the Real Wold." Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers 74, no. 7 (October 1999): 14-18.

Roberts, M. "Rigor and Vigor: Three Schools Reap Results." Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers 74, no. 6 (September 1999): 20-23.

Southern Regional Education Board. 1996 Outstanding Practices: Effective Strategies in Raising the Achievement of Career-Bound High School Students by Replacing the General Track. High Schools That Work. Atlanta, GA: SREB, 1996. (ED 404 541)

Southern Regional Education Board. Using Real World Projects to Help Students Meet High Standards in Education and the Workplace. Site Development Guide #11. High Schools That Work. Atlanta, GA: SREB, 2000. (ED 451 420) <http://www.sreb.org/programs/hstw/publications/site-guides/UsingRealWorldProjects.pdf>

Thaler-Carter, R. E. "Cutting-Edge Training and Career Relevance." Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers 75, no. 8 (November-December 2000): S6-S8.

Vocational Instructional Materials Laboratory. Core ITAC for Career-Focused Education. Integrated Technical & Academic Competencies. Columbus: VIML, Center on Education and Training for Employment, the Ohio State University, 1999. (ED 444 000)

Zirkle, C. "Using the Internet to Enhance Teacher Education." Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers 77, no. 5 (May 2002): 24-25.

Education Quotes - Quotations and Famous Quotes on Education

In teaching others we teach ourselves.

Let us think of education as the means of developing our greatest abilities, because in each of us there is a private hope and dream which, fulfilled, can be translated into benefit for everyone and greater strength for our nation.

John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) Thirty-fifth President of the USA

Do not train a child to learn by force or harshness; but direct them to it by what amuses their minds, so that you may be better able to discover with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of each.

Plato (BC 427-BC 347) Greek philosopher.

One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but with gratitude to those who touched our human feelings. The curriculum is so much necessary raw material, but warmth is the vital element for the growing plant and for the soul of the child.

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist.

A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring; There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain; And drinking largely sobers us again.

Alexander Pope (1688-1744) English poet and satirist.

A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.

Henry Brooks Adams (1838-1918) American historian, journalist and novelist.

The secret in education lies in respecting the student.

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) U.S. poet, essayist and lecturer.

He who dares to teach must never cease to learn.

Our progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education. The human mind is our fundamental resource.

John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) Thirty-fifth President of the USA

He who opens a school door, closes a prison.

Victor Hugo (1802-1885) French poet, dramatist and novelist.

Quotations and citations: quoting text

Quotations and citations: quoting text

When quoting text in HTML, there are several ways of marking up the quoted text. Which way you choose depends on what you're quoting, how you're quoting it, and how important it is for you that all browsers render the quotations the same way.

The available quotation elements aren't really used a lot outside of web standards blogs. A probable reason, besides people not knowing about them, is less than perfect browser support for some features of the q element. That doesn't mean it can't be used though, so let's take a look at how and when to use what quotation element.

Inline quotes: the q element

When the text you're quoting is short enough to be displayed inline (as part of a sentence), the q element should be used. All you need to do is wrap the quoted text in a q element and web browsers automatically render quotation marks before and after the content of the q element.

Or rather, that's what they're supposed to do. Unfortunately, not all browsers do (hello again, IE/Win), and of the browsers that do, most don't get it right.

All modern browsers recognise the q element and insert some form of quotation marks. Great. But there is a problem. Browsers should insert the quotation mark characters appropriate for the language specified by the lang and/or xml:lang attributes for the whole document or part of it. That's right, different languages use different kinds of quotation marks.

Furthermore, when q elements are nested, browsers should automatically insert the correct, language specific, quotation marks for nested quotations.

As far as I know, no current browser gets all that right. Amazingly, of all the browsers that I have tested in, the one that comes closest is Internet Explorer. The Mac version, that is. It inserts the correct typographical quotation marks, even for nested quotations. It also renders different quotation marks for some languages, like French. All other browsers just insert straight double quotation marks ("), even around nested quotations.

A typographical sidenote here: the straight quotation marks aren't really quotation marks at all. They're called prime and double prime, are sometimes referred to as dumb quotes, and were made popular by being the only characters looking anything like quotation marks on mechanical typewriters. Yes, they are. I stand corrected. After spending some time looking through the code charts at Unicode. I found them. Thanks, Joe, for pointing it out (comment #12 ). Looks like Bringhurst, whose book I used to check my facts for this, is indeed wrong here.

So what is a poor markup purist to do? Give up on the q element? Manually insert quotation marks? Not yet. There is a way to improve the situation a bit.

By applying a bit of CSS you can make several browsers insert the correct quotation marks:

The first rule defines a list of quotation mark pairs to use. The characters in the first pair are for top level quotations, and the next two are used for quotations within quotations. You're not limited to two levels; provide as many pairs as you wish. You can also use any characters; just enter a backslash and then the hexadecimal entity code for the character you want. Of course, if you're using utf-8 there is no need for entities.

The next two rules tell browsers to use the quotation marks defined in the first rule. More info on the CSS used for this can be found in Specifying quotes with the 'quotes' property .

Things aren't perfect now, but better. Opera displays the quotation marks defined by the CSS for both levels of quotations. Firefox (and other Gecko based browsers) only use the first pair of quotation marks for all levels of quotations. Safari is a bit stubborn, and displays double dumb quotes for all levels. Not perfect, but better than nothing.

If you quote text in languages that use different quotation marks than your document's main language, CSS can help you out with that too:

This allows you to specify different characters to use as quotation marks for different languages. Browser support is a bit lacking, so an alternative way would be to use an attribute selector:

The above will match any q element that has a lang attribute whose value begins with "en". Again, not all browsers do this. In most cases there really isn't any need to specify quotation marks for different languages like this anyway, unless you have a document with whole paragraphs in different languages. The quotation rules for the dominant language should be used, not those for the quoted language.

With modern browsers reasonably taken care of, in the sense that they render some kind of quotation marks around the content of q elements, there's still IE/Win, which doesn't render any quotation marks at all. There's no way to make it do that automatically (well I suppose you could use some clever JavaScript, but I'll leave that to someone else), but you can still make it display inline quotations in italics, which I think is a reasonable tradeoff:

In this example I used the Mac hack in combination with the Tan hack (more info on those hacks ) to hide the rule from all browsers except IE/Win. Use your favourite way of sending IE/Win a separate stylesheet.

Here's an example paragraph of nested inline quotations, with the CSS applied:

The W3C HTML 4.01 specification states that the presentation of phrase elements depends on the user agent .

Blockquotes: the blockquote element

For quoting longer passages of text that make up one or more complete paragraphs, or are otherwise not suitable to include inline, use the blockquote element .

Quotation marks in blockquote elements are not automatically inserted by browsers. The spec does not require them to either, though it encourages implementors to provide ways of doing so. You're free to insert your own, or otherwise style the blockquote to make it look like a quote.

One thing that's important to remember about the blockquote element is that it can only contain block level elements (easy to remember: block quote – block elements) when you use a Strict DOCTYPE. This means that the text it contains must be enclosed in a block level element, which in most cases will be one or more p element(s).

Here's how I've styled blockquotes:

The following sections discuss issues surrounding the structuring of text. Elements that present text (alignment elements, font elements, style sheets, etc.) are discussed elsewhere in the specification. For information about characters, please consult the section on the document character set.

Referencing: the cite attribute

Both the q and the blockquote elements can take an optional cite attribute. The value of the cite attribute is a URI that points to the source of the quotation. The source of my example blockquote looks like this:

The contents of the cite attribute aren't normally displayed by browsers (though in Mozilla/Firefox, if you right click a blockquote and select "Properties", the URI used in the cite attribute will be displayed, along with the language specified for the blockquote), but there are ways of using CSS to display the URI. This could be useful to have in a print style sheet, to reveal any cite attributes.

The following sections discuss issues surrounding the structuring of text. Elements that present text (alignment elements, font elements, style sheets, etc.) are discussed elsewhere in the specification. For information about characters, please consult the section on the document character set.

The above blockquote uses the following CSS:

This works in Mozilla/Firefox, Safari, and Opera. Since this doesn't provide any essential information or break things in other browsers, I think it's a nice case of forward enhancement.

Citing: the cite element

While not technically a quotation, the cite element falls very close. It's commonly used to markup the names of external references, like the title of a book or a movie. The HTML 4.01 spec states that cite Contains a citation or a reference to other sources. which leaves room for a bit of interpretation. The consensus seems to be to use it to markup titles of movies, books, and the like. The cite element can only contain inline elements, so no paragraphs. An example:

A couple of my favourite science fiction epics are the Night's Dawn Trilogy by Peter F. Hamilton and Isaac Asimov's Foundation series.

You can also use it in combination with a blockquote element to provide a reference to the source of the quotation. If that reference is an important part of the content, this is probably a better method than the CSS technique described above. An example:

The following sections discuss issues surrounding the structuring of text. Elements that present text (alignment elements, font elements, style sheets, etc.) are discussed elsewhere in the specification. For information about characters, please consult the section on the document character set.

The XHTML for that:

In this example I grouped the blockquote and cite elements by wrapping them in a div to be able to treat them as a unit.

Conclusion

Phew. This ended up being much longer than I had originally intended. If you've skipped straight to the end, here's the short version:

  • Use the q element for inline quotations. Do not add any quotation marks to the markup. For greater control over styling and typography, use CSS. Due to lacking browser support for the q element and the generation of quotation marks, this isn't an exact science. Use your own judgement.
  • Use the blockquote element for quoting paragraphs of text. Make sure to enclose the quoted text in a block level element like p if you're using a strict DOCTYPE.
  • Use the cite element to markup the names of external references like movies or books.
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